Fruit Vegetables

Tomato

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

It is normally self pollinated. Although the stigma is receptive at time of anthesis dehiscence of anthers does not usually occur until 24-48 hours later. Self fertilisation is favoured by the position of receptive stigma within the cone anthers and the normal pendant position of the flower. However, cross-pollination to some extent can occur. Isolation distance required is 50 meters for foundation and 25 meters for certified stage of seed crop.

Time of Sowing

Northern Plains- June to August, November to December
Hills - March to April
Southern States- September to October

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by leveling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

500 gms per hectare.

Sowing of Seeds in Nursery

Seeds may be sown on raised nursery beds. (15 to 20 cms high from the ground) inrows 3 to 4 cm apart. 25 nursery beds of size 2 to 2.5 meters long and 1 to 1.25 metres wide will raise enough seedlings to transplant one ha.

Fertilisation

Apply 25 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; and 550 kg of Superphosphate, 175 kg potassium sulphate and amonium sulphate or C.A.N. at the time of final preparation of field. Top-dress 275 kg ammonium sulphate or C.A.N. in two doses, one after 15 to 20 days of transplanting, and the other at flowering time. Irrigate immediately afterwards.Foliar spray of one per cent urea enhances the yield. 35 kg nitrogen per hectare, in four to five sprays is recommended.

Transplanting

Transplant the seedlings, when 7.5 to 10 cms in height, preferably at evening time. Irrigate immediately afterwards.

Spacing

1. Autumn, Winter crop 75 x 60cm; 2. Spring, Summer crop 75 x 40 cm.

Irrigation

Irrigate fortnightly during winter and weekly during summer

Interculture

Shallow cultivation is frequently required especially during the first four weeks. Two to three hoeings and weedings are necessary to keep the field free from weeds.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the offtypes.

Harvesting and Threshing

Harvested for seed much in the same way that it is picked for the market. The fruit should not be left on the vine until decay begins.

Juice and Seed Extration: The canery equipment as pulpers and cyclones are primarily used, and after extraction the processers have in general two products: the juice and the pumice, or more or less the dry mass of squeezed pulp. skin and seeds. The only heat used may be scalding process to loosen the skin of the fruit. Such a mechanical method of seed extraction is rapid and leaves the seed practically free of seed extraction is rapid and leaves the seed practically free of the gelatinous tissue surrounding it in the fruit. Seed obtained by juice extracting equipment may be separated from the pumice by washing it with an abundant supply of water as described further on.

Ordinary seed extraction: When mechinery similar to that for vine crops is used, the chief difference is the lack of any heavy knives. The tomato is easily cut and crushed. It is usually made to pass between corrugated rollers before falling into a revolving wire mesh cylinder. the material and juice which passes through the screens is then poured into large tubes orvats where the extraction process is completed by one of the methods described below.

Separation by fermentation: The fermentation process is an old established procedure which effectively controls bacterial canker. It is best to allow the mass of fruit pulp and juice to ferment without theaddition ofwater. Fermentation should take place long enough forthe mucilaginous material adhering to the seed to distintegrate sufficiently so as to release the seeds, which sink tothe bottom. the undecomposed pulp floats to the top leaving a layer of clear liquid in between. Since, gas and floating pulp often entrap good seed and hold it in the upper layer, the contents of vats require fairly frequent stirring. Stirring tends to release such seed and also prevents fungus growth from starting at the survace of the mass.If thisfungus is allowed to grow, some discoloration and even injury to the seed may result.

Temperature determines to a large extent the length of time the fermentation process continues. If it reamins around 24 to 27 C most of the time, fermentation is rapid, and satisfactory separation of seed and pulp is attained in about two days. For thecontrol of canker, however, fermentationmust continue for at least 96 hours. Since such a long period may result in injury to the seed, it is advised that under such circumstances the fermenting pulp be kept as close to 21 C as possible. The lower thetemperature, the slower the fermentation process. Acid separation: In the acid method, hydrochloric acid is added to the pulp at the rate 100ml forevery 14 kilogrammes of pulp (approximately 10 litres per tonne). If a thorough mixing of the acid and pulp occurs, the seeds may be washed free within 15 to 30 minutes. By proper arrangement ofequipment it is possible to have an almost continuous process.

The acid method has several advantages:

  • The seed can be extracted and dried on the same day.
  • Less number of vats are required.
  • The problems of low and high temperatures are avoided.
  • Discoloured seed resulting from fermentation is entirely eliminated.

To control bacterial canker theextracted seed, in addition, maybe treated with 0.8 per cent solution of pure acetic acid in water for24 hours, at temperature below 21 C. Alkali separation: In alkali method equal volume of an alkali mixture (425 gm ordinary wahsing soda added to 5 litre of boiling water) is added to pulp and mixed. When the alkali mixture is cooled, allow it all tostand overnight in an earthen pot. Next day, all the seeds will settle down at the bottom ofthe container. Now decnt-off the clear liquid at the top and wash theseeds thoroughly.

Washing: After extraction the seeds are washed with water to remove the pulp, etc. The water is added to containers with the pulp and seed. It is stirred thoroughly and is drained out along with pulp and other mucilaginous substance. This process is repeated until the seeds are clean.

Drying: After washing, theseeds should be dried as rapidly as possible. Seed may be spread on screen bottom trays, or cloth, and placed in the open where a maximum exposure to sun and dry air is attained. The seeds should be dried to eight per cent moisture before storage.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is about 100 to 120 kg per hectare.

Brinjal

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Brinjal is partially self- and corss-pollinated , but self-pollination is more common. The extent of natural corssing depends upon insect activity and has been recorded from 0to 48 per cent. For pure seed production, seed fields must be isolated from other variety brinjal fields, and fields ofsame vareity not conforming to varietal purity requirements of seed certification at least by two hundred metres for foundation seed production, and one hundred metres forcertified seed production.

Time of Sowing

Plains - February to March, June to July, October to November
Hills - March to April

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by leveling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

375 to 500 gms per hectare.

Sowing of Seeds in Nursery

Seeds may be sown on raised nursery beds. (15 to 20 cms high from the ground) inrows 2to 3cm apart. 25 nursery beds of size 2 to 2.5 meters long and 1 to 1.25 metres wide will raise enough seedlings to transplant one ha

Fertilisation

Apply 20 to 25 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; and 300 kg of Superphosphate, 125 kg potassium sulphate and 250 kg of amonium sulphate or C.A.N. before transplating .. Top-dress 250 kg ammonium sulphate or C.A.N. in two doses. the first fifteen days after transplanting, and the second at flowering time spread around the plants. Irrigate immediately after top-dressing.

Transplanting

Transplant the seedlings, when 12 to 15 cms in height, preferably at evening time. Irrigate immediately afterwards.

Spacing

(a) Non-spreading types: 60 x60 cm between rows and plants.
(b) Spreading type : 75 to 90 x 60 to 70 cm..

Irrigation

Irrigate at two weeks interval during the summer

Interculture

Keep the fields free from weeds, and the soil well aerated by frequent hoeings.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the offtypes.

Harvesting and Threshing

Harvesting is done when fruits are fully ripe. the fruits are picked and collected. The outer covering is peeled off and the flesh with the seeds is cut into thin slices. These are then softened by soaking till the seeds are separated from the pulp. If the material is allowed in this condition tostand overnight, the separation of seeds from the pulp becomes easier. After separation, the seeds are dipped into water. those which float should be rejected. the seeds should then be dried in partial shade to a moisture content ofeight percent below, before storing.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is about 100 to 200 kg per hectare.

Hybrid Brinjal

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Brinjal is partially self- and corss-pollinated , but self-pollination is more common. The extent of natural corssing depends upon insect activity and has been recorded from 0to 48 per cent. For pure seed production, seed fields must be isolated from other variety brinjal fields, and fields ofsame vareity not conforming to varietal purity requirements of seed certification at least by two hundred metres for foundation seed production, and one hundred metres forcertified seed production.

Time of Sowing

Plains - February to March, June to July, October to November
Hills - March to April

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by leveling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

375 to 500 gms per hectare.

Sowing of Seeds in Nursery

Seeds may be sown on raised nursery beds. (15 to 20 cms high from the ground) inrows 2to 3cm apart. 25 nursery beds of size 2 to 2.5 meters long and 1 to 1.25 metres wide will raise enough seedlings to transplant one ha.

Fertilisation

Apply 20 to 25 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; and 300 kg of Superphosphate, 125 kg potassium sulphate and 250 kg of amonium sulphate or C.A.N. before transplating .. Top-dress 250 kg ammonium sulphate or C.A.N. in two doses. the first fifteen days after transplanting, and the second at flowering time spread around the plants. Irrigate immediately after top-dressing.

SpaTransplantingcing

Transplant the seedlings, when 12 to 15 cms in height, preferably at evening time. Irrigate immediately afterwards.

Spacing

(a) Non-spreading types: 60 x60 cm between rows and plants.
(b) Spreading type : 75 to 90 x 60 to 70 cm.

Irrigation

Irrigate at two weeks interval during the summer

Interculture

Keep the fields free from weeds, and the soil well aerated by frequent hoeings.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the offtypes.

Harvesting and Threshing

Harvesting is done when fruits are fully ripe. the fruits are picked and collected. The outer covering is peeled off and the flesh with the seeds is cut into thin slices. These are then softened by soaking till the seeds are separated from the pulp. If the material is allowed in this condition tostand overnight, the separation of seeds from the pulp becomes easier. After separation, the seeds are dipped into water. those which float should be rejected. the seeds should then be dried in partial shade to a moisture content ofeight percent below, before storing.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is about 100 to 200 kg per hectare.

Hybrid Seed Production

In producing the hybrid seed, thevariety setting the large number of seeds in a single fruit should be takne as the female parent, so that a large amount of seed could be obtained in a single attempt.

The flower buds which are expected to open the next day are selected on the female parent. With the help of forceps the flower buds are opened and the stamens, the number ofwhich varies from five to seven, are removed one by one. Thisprocess of removing the stamens is called "emasculation". The emasculated buds are then bagged in butter paper or muslin cloth bags to prevent pollination with the undesirable pollens. While emasculating the flower, care should be exercised that no anther is reptured or crushed. If it happens, such flowers should be rejectedand the forcep should be sterilised with spirit or alcohol.

The flower buds of the male parent should also be bagged to avoid contamination. Next day in the morning, the flowers which were bagged for taking the pollen grains are plucked and collected in a petridish. The female budsare then uncovered. Theanther from the male flower isremoved and is held in between the arms of the forceps. As the pollen grains in the anthers of brinjal are released through apical pores, the anther is held perpendicular to the stigma surface, keeping the apical pores of the anther opposite to the stigma surface. the forceps are tapped and the yellow coloured powder of pollen mass is dusted on the stigma. This process of dusting the pollen grains on the stigma is known as 'Pollination'. the pollinated buds are again bagged to prevent corss-pollination.

The emasculation and pollination can be done simultaneously. However, thesuccess in fruit setting when this method is followed is marginally reduced, but the labour and time required, for bagging the emasculated buds and unbagging them the next day for pollination is effectively saved. The emasculated and unpollinated buds and male buds are tagged with tags of different colours so that each set of buds can be distinguished with the help of the colour of the tags.

Hot Pepper (Chilli) and Sweet Pepper

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Pepper is self-and cross-pollinated. Cross-pollination is done mainly by insects. the extent of cross-pollination from 7 to 36 per cent has been recorded in the U.S.A. The seed fields must be isolated from other variety fields of pepper(both hot and sweet pepper), and fields of same vareity not conforming to varietal purity requirement ofcertification by at least four hundred metres for foundation seed production and two hundred metres for certified seed production.

Time of Sowing

(a) Hot pepper
Northern Plains (i) Kharif crop June to July
Northern Plains (ii) Spring crop February to March
Eastern and Southern Zones throughout the year.
(b) Sweet pepper
Hills April , May
North July, November to February
South September to October

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by levelling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

One or two kilogrammes per hectare.

Sowing of Seeds in Nursery

Seeds may be sown on raised nursery beds. (18 to 20 cms high from the ground)Each bed may be 2 to 2.5 meters long and 1 to 1.25 metres wide. 25 such bed will raise enough seedlings to transplant one ha.

Fertilisation

Apply 25 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; and 175kg of Superphosphate, 100 kg potassium sulphate and amonium sulphate or C.A.N. at the time of transplanting. Top-dress 175 kg ammonium sulphate before flowering (40 to 45 days after transplanitng).

Transplanting

After 4 to 5 weeks, the seedlings grow about 15 to 20 cm tall and are then ready for transplanting. the transplanting may be done on ridges.

Spacing

(a) Hot pepper: 60 cm from row to row and 45 cm from plant to plant.
(b) Sweet pepper : 45 x 45 cm.

Irrigation

The maintenance of uniform soil moisture is essential to blossom and prevent fruit drop. Generally 8 to 9 irrigations are given, depending upon rainfall, soil type, humidity and prevailing temperature.

Interculture

Two to three hoeings and weedings are necessary to keep the field free from weeds.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the offtypes.

Harvesting and Threshing of Seeds

Fruits are picked when red ripe. Picking of immature fruits may result in serious germination difficulty. Fruits are crushed, cut, or macerated. Seeds are washed free of pulp and skins. After washing, seeds are dried in the sun to below eight per cent moisture content, before storage.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is about 50 to 80 kg per hectare.

Okra (Bhendi)

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Okra is partially self-and cross-pollinated. The extent of natural corssing vareis from 4 to 19 per cent. Isolation of seed fields is necessary for production of pure seed. The seed fields must be isolated from fields of other vareities, fields of the same vareity not conforming to thevarietal purity requirements for certification and from wild Abelmoschus species, at least by four hundred meters for foundation seed class and two hundred metres for certified seed class.

Time of Sowing

Northern Plains- February to July
East and South - Through out the year.

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by leveling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

Kharif crop - 8 to10 kg per hectare.
Spring crop - 10 to 15 kg per hectare.

Sowing of Seeds

The sowing should be done in rows. Use overnight soaked seeds. Sow in fullsoil moisture behind the plough in shallow furrows. Seed should not be sown more than 3 cm deep.

Fertilisation

Apply 25 to 30 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure per hectare two weeks before sowing and 350 kg of Superphosphate, 125 kg of muriate of potash and 300 kg amonium sulphate in the rows before sowing. Top-dress 300 kg ammonium sulphate after about a month.

Transplanting

Transplant the seedlings, when 7.5 to 10 cms in height, preferably at evening time. Irrigate immediately afterwards.

Spacing

harif crop 60 x 30 to 45 cm
Spring crop 45 x 30 cm

Irrigation

Irrigate fortnightly during winter and weekly during summer

Interculture

Two to three hoeings and weedings from time to time, are necessary to keep the field free from weeds.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the offtypes.

Harvesting and Threshing of Seeds

Pods should be harvested when they have dried (about thirty-five days old). Varieties with angular pods, which open along sutures, should be harvested promptly to avoid shattering. The pods are usually picked by hand, and threshed by flailing seed by hand. Seed should be dried to at least ten per cent moisture content before storage.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is 12 qtl per hectare.

Cucurbits

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Most of thecucurbits are monoecious in character and a few are dioecious. A number of hermaphrodite and andromonoecious cultivars are also available in some crops. Pollination is largely done by insects. For pure seed production to separate it from fields of other varieties, fields of the same vareity not conforming to vareital purity requirements for certification.

Time of Sowing

Northern Plains- June to August, November to December
Hills - March to April
Southern States- September to October

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by leveling.

Source of Land

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

500 gms per hectare.

Sowing of Seeds in Nursery

Seeds may be sown on raised nursery beds. (15 to 20 cms high from the ground) inrows 3 to 4 cm apart. 25 nursery beds of size 2 to 2.5 meters long and 1 to 1.25 metres wide will raise enough seedlings to transplant one ha.

Fertilisation

Apply 25 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; and 550 kg of Superphosphate, 175 kg potassium sulphate and amonium sulphate or C.A.N. at the time of final preparation of field. Top-dress 275 kg ammonium sulphate or C.A.N. in two doses, one after 15 to 20 days of transplanting, and the other at flowering time. Irrigate immediately afterwards.Foliar spray of one per cent urea enhances the yield. 35 kg nitrogen per hectare, in four to five sprays is recommended.

Transplanting

Transplant the seedlings, when 7.5 to 10 cms in height, preferably at evening time. Irrigate immediately afterwards.

Spacing

1. Autumn, Winter crop 75 x 60cm; 2. Spring, Summer crop 75 x 40 cm.

Irrigation

Irrigate fortnightly during winter and weekly during summer

Interculture

Shallow cultivation is frequently required especially during the first four weeks. Two to three hoeings and weedings are necessary to keep the field free from weeds.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the offtypes.

Harvesting and Threshing

Harvested for seed much in the same way that it is picked for the market. The fruit should not be left on the vine until decay begins.

Juice and Seed Extration: The canery equipment as pulpers and cyclones are primarily used, and after extraction the processers have in general two products: the juice and the pumice, or more or less the dry mass of squeezed pulp. skin and seeds. The only heat used may be scalding process to loosen the skin of the fruit. Such a mechanical method of seed extraction is rapid and leaves the seed practically free of seed extraction is rapid and leaves the seed practically free of the gelatinous tissue surrounding it in the fruit. Seed obtained by juice extracting equipment may be separated from the pumice by washing it with an abundant supply of water as described further on.

Ordinary seed extraction: When mechinery similar to that for vine crops is used, the chief difference is the lack of any heavy knives. The tomato is easily cut and crushed. It is usually made to pass between corrugated rollers before falling into a revolving wire mesh cylinder. the material and juice which passes through the screens is then poured into large tubes orvats where the extraction process is completed by one of the methods described below.

Separation by fermentation: The fermentation process is an old established procedure which effectively controls bacterial canker. It is best to allow the mass of fruit pulp and juice to ferment without theaddition ofwater. Fermentation should take place long enough forthe mucilaginous material adhering to the seed to distintegrate sufficiently so as to release the seeds, which sink tothe bottom. the undecomposed pulp floats to the top leaving a layer of clear liquid in between. Since, gas and floating pulp often entrap good seed and hold it in the upper layer, the contents of vats require fairly frequent stirring. Stirring tends to release such seed and also prevents fungus growth from starting at the survace of the mass.If thisfungus is allowed to grow, some discoloration and even injury to the seed may result.

Temperature determines to a large extent the length of time the fermentation process continues. If it reamins around 24 to 27 C most of the time, fermentation is rapid, and satisfactory separation of seed and pulp is attained in about two days. For thecontrol of canker, however, fermentationmust continue for at least 96 hours. Since such a long period may result in injury to the seed, it is advised that under such circumstances the fermenting pulp be kept as close to 21 C as possible. The lower thetemperature, the slower the fermentation process. Acid separation: In the acid method, hydrochloric acid is added to the pulp at the rate 100ml forevery 14 kilogrammes of pulp (approximately 10 litres per tonne). If a thorough mixing of the acid and pulp occurs, the seeds may be washed free within 15 to 30 minutes. By proper arrangement ofequipment it is possible to have an almost continuous process.

The acid method has several advantages:

  • The seed can be extracted and dried on the same day.
  • Less number of vats are required.
  • The problems of low and high temperatures are avoided.
  • Discoloured seed resulting from fermentation is entirely eliminated.

To control bacterial canker theextracted seed, in addition, maybe treated with 0.8 per cent solution of pure acetic acid in water for24 hours, at temperature below 21 C. Alkali separation: In alkali method equal volume of an alkali mixture (425 gm ordinary wahsing soda added to 5 litre of boiling water) is added to pulp and mixed. When the alkali mixture is cooled, allow it all tostand overnight in an earthen pot. Next day, all the seeds will settle down at the bottom ofthe container. Now decnt-off the clear liquid at the top and wash theseeds thoroughly.

Washing: After extraction the seeds are washed with water to remove the pulp, etc. The water is added to containers with the pulp and seed. It is stirred thoroughly and is drained out along with pulp and other mucilaginous substance. This process is repeated until the seeds are clean.

Drying: After washing, theseeds should be dried as rapidly as possible. Seed may be spread on screen bottom trays, or cloth, and placed in the open where a maximum exposure to sun and dry air is attained. The seeds should be dried to eight per cent moisture before storage.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is about 100 to 120 kg per hectare.

Hybrid Cucumber

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Most of thecucurbits are monoecious in character and a few are dioecious. A number of hermaphrodite and andromonoecious cultivars are also available in some crops. Pollination is largely done by insects. For pure seed production to separate it from fields of other varieties, fields of the same vareity not conforming to vareital purity requirements for certification.

Time of Sowing

Northern - Summer - January to February
Kharif - June to July
Southern - October to November

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by leveling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

2 to 5 kg per hectare.

Sowing of Seeds

(a) Hills are prepared at proper spacing by adding well-rotted farmyard manure and a number of seeds are sown on each hill.
(b) Furrows are made at row to row spacings (two metres) and seeds are sown on the edge of the furrows 50 to 90 cm apart on both sides, above the water level so that the water is received by capillary movement. Two to three seeds may be sown at each place.

Fertilisation

Apply 30tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; and 150 kg of Superphosphate or 125 kg amonium sulphate or C.A.N.and 50 kg sulphate of potash should be prepared and mixed at 500 gm per pit, while preparing the pits for sowing.. Top-dress 100 kg ammonium sulphate or C.A.N. at time of flowering.

Thinning

When the seed is sown on hills,the plants should be thinned so that not more than three plants are left standing on each hill. When sown along the furrow, the plants at each place are thinned to one or two.

Spacing

1. Autumn, Winter crop 75 x 60cm; 2. Spring, Summer crop 75 x 40 cm.

Irrigation

The number of irrigations depends upon the number of rainy days. The crop ;normally requires irrigation after eight to ten days.

Interculture

The beds should be kept free of weeds, especially in the early stages. Later on, rapidly spreading vines suppress the weeds. It is desirable to stake this crop during the rainy season.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the offtypes.

Harvesting and Threshing

The seed crop is ready for harvest when the fruits have turned pale yellow or golden. The seeds are obtained by cutting individual fruits in half, longitudinally, and scraping them out with knife.

At the time of extraction, the seed will not separate completely from the pulp surrounding it. Its adherence to this material is broken by one of three methods.

  • Fermentation
  • Mechanical means
  • Chemical extraction

Fermentation: In this method, the pulp is poured into wooden barrels where it is allowed to ferment for several days. The fermenting material is occasionally stirred to prevent any discoloration or blackening of seed from mold, which may form on the material floating at the surface.

As the seed separates from the disintegrating pulp, it tends to sink to the bottom of the container. the seeds are then washed and dried in the sun to moisture contents below seven per cent, before storage.

Mechanical means: Seed can be extracted by the use of special machines also. In these machines, the fruits are not only cut and macerated, but also the pulp is squeezed so that the seed is forcibly separated from it. In this operation, considerable water is used for washing towards the end of the operation. The seeds are laterwashed and dried to moisture content below seven per cent.

Chemical extraction: Either an acid or an alkali may be used to speed up the extraction of cucumber seed. 100 cc of hydrochloric acid per 11 to 12 kg of pulp, or 12 parts of 25 per cent technical grade ammonia per 1000 parts of material, is thoroughly stirred into the pulp. After about thirty minutes, water is added while stirring. The pulp, other impurities, and empty seeds will float and mature seeds will sink to the bottom. Later, the seeds are washed anddried to moisture content below seven per cent.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is about 110 to 130 kg per hectare.

Hybrid Seed production

Hybrid cucumber seed can be produced by hand-pollination. In the U.S.A, the gynomonoecious lines are being used for hybrid seed production. These lines produce two kinds ofplants, gynoecious (in which all flowers are female) and monoecious (in which male and female flowers occur separately on the same plant). To produce hybrid seed the gynomonoecious line is used as a female parent and planted adjacent to a selected monoecious variety. At about the ten node stage all monoecious and intermediate plants are removed from the gynomonoecious line, leaving the gynoecious plants to bear hybrid seed.

Muskmelon

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Most of thecucurbits are monoecious in character and a few are dioecious. A number of hermaphrodite and andromonoecious cultivars are also available in some crops. Pollination is largely done by insects. For pure seed production to separate it from fields of other varieties, fields of the same vareity not conforming to vareital purity requirements for certification.

Time of Sowing

February to March

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by leveling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

3 to 4 kgs per hectare.

Method of Sowing

The seeds are sown after soaking them in water overnight.(a) Hills are prepared at proper spacing by adding well-rotted farmyard manure and a number of seeds are sown on each hill.
(b) Furrows are made at row to row spacings (two metres) and seeds are sown on the edge of the furrows 50 to 90 cm apart on both sides, above the water level so that the water is received by capillary movement. Two to three seeds may be sown at each place.

Fertilisation

Apply 30tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; and 150 kg of Superphosphate or 125 kg amonium sulphate or C.A.N.and 50 kg sulphate of potash should be prepared and mixed at 500 gm per pit, while preparing the pits for sowing.. Top-dress 100 kg ammonium sulphate or C.A.N. at time of flowering.

Thinning

When the seed is sown on hills,the plants should be thinned so that not more than three plants are left standing on each hill. When sown along the furrow, the plants at each place are thinned to one or two.

Spacing

1. Autumn, Winter crop 75 x 60cm; 2. Spring, Summer crop 75 x 40 cm.

Irrigation

The crop requires an abundance of moisture during the early part of vine growth. Once the melons are fully gorwn, over-watering should be avoided.

Interculture

Regular interculture operations are necessary to keep weeds under control.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the offtypes.

Harvesting and Threshing

Fruits are ready to harvest when the point of attachment with the stem shows a wide crack (full slip stage) and the seed is practically mature. it is advisable to wait until sufficient fruits ripen before harvesting. Fruits, after picking, are placed in piles. they are cut open by hand with a knife and the seed and pulp are scraped into a container. Later the seeds are separated from the pulp either by fermentation, followed by washing or by washing alone. The seeds, after washing in water, are dried quickly in the sun.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is about 200 to 300 kg per hectare.

Squash

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Most of thecucurbits are monoecious in character and a few are dioecious. A number of hermaphrodite and andromonoecious cultivars are also available in some crops. Pollination is largely done by insects. For pure seed production to separate it from fields of other varieties, fields of the same vareity not conforming to vareital purity requirements for certification.

Time of Sowing

February to March , June to July.

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by leveling.

Source of Land

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

5kgs per hectare.

Sowing of Seeds

Seeds are sown either on one side, or both sides of the channels. The channels are irrigated and seeds are sown on ridges at a place above water level, so that the water is received by capillary movement. In case of early sowing, sprouted seeds are sown on the ridges. Tow or three seeds may be sown on each hill and subsequently thinned out.

Fertilisation

Apply 25 to 50 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; and 300 kg of Superphosphate, 100 kg potassium sulphate and 125 kg of ammonium sulphate or C.A.N. should be mixed at 500 gm per pit while preparing pits for sowing. Top-dress 125kg ammonium sulphate or C.A.N. at the time of flowering.

Spacing

Two metres between channels, and one metre between plants.

Irrigation

Irrigate every third or fourth day during summer and number of irrigations for the rainy season would depend upon the number of rainy days.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the off types.

Harvesting and Threshing

Seeds are ready to harvest when fruits redden and seeds inside the shell break readily from the pulp. Immature seeds adhere to pulp. Fruits are picked from plants and piled. The fruits are cut in half and the seeds scooped out and the contents dried in the sun. the seeds are removed from the flesh by rubbing over a sieve, and finally winnowed to remove light matter. Seeds may be washed , if necessary, and dried in trays and stored in a cool, dry place.

Seed Yield

Seeds are ready to harvest when fruits redden and seeds inside the shell break readily from the pulp. Immature seeds adhere to pulp. Fruits are picked from plants and piled. The fruits are cut in half and the seeds scooped out and the contents dried in the sun. the seeds are removed from the flesh by rubbing over a sieve, and finally winnowed to remove light matter. Seeds may be washed , if necessary, and dried in trays and stored in a cool, dry place.

Watermelon

Land Requirements

No Specific requirements. Land should be free from volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Most of thecucurbits are monoecious in character and a few are dioecious. A number of hermaphrodite and andromonoecious cultivars are also available in some crops. Pollination is largely done by insects. For pure seed production to separate it from fields of other varieties, fields of the same vareity not conforming to vareital purity requirements for certification.

Time of Sowing

February to March

Preparation of Land

For transplanting prepare the field to a fine tilth by ploughing and 3to 4 harrowings followed by leveling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

Two and half to five kilogramme per hectare.

Sowing of Seeds

Seeds are sown on both sides of the channels. The channels are irrigated and theseeds are sown on the ridges at a place above water level, so that water is received by capillary movement. Two to three seeds may be sown on each hill, and subsequently thinned out.

Fertilisation

Apply 30 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; and 150 kg of Superphosphate, 100 kg potassium sulphate and125 kg of amonium sulphate or C.A.N. may be prepared and mixed at 500 gm per pit while preparing the pits for sowing. Top-dress 150 kg ammonium sulphate or C.A.N.at the time of flowering.

Spacing

Two metres between channels and one metre between plants.

Irrigation

Irrigate the furrows lightly soon after sowing, once in ten days during spring and every week during the hot months.

Interculture

Hhoeings and weedings around the bases of the plants should be thoroughly attended to.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove the offtypes.

Harvesting and Threshing

Fruits are ready for harvest when they reach edible maturity. However, there is no harm in delaying the harvesting for a few days, or even a week, or longer, unless it is desired to examine flesh quality and flavour. The fruit picking should be done only by men familiar with plant and fruit types, so that any previously unrecognised rogue may be removed. The fruits are placed in piles after picking. The fruits are cut open individually by hand, seed scraped out and washed over a screen with clean water. Seed must bedried quickly after washing,and stored in a cool dry place.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is about 200 to 250 kg per hectare.