Millets

Bajra - Variety

CUMBU (Pennisetum glacum)

I.SEASON AND VARIETIES
Districts/Season Varieties/hybrid
CHITHIRAIPATTAM(March-April)
All districts except Kanchipuram,Tiruvallur and The Nilgiris WCC 75, K 3, CO 7 x 6 x 7
II.MASIPATTAM(January-February) WCC 75, CO 7, x 6, x 7
2.RAINFED
ADIPATTAM(June-July)
All districts except Kancheepuram,Tiruvallur and The Nilgiris WCC 75, K 3, CO 7, x 6, x 7 K4HB

NURSERY

Preparation Of Land
  • For raising seedlings to plant one ha select 7.5 cents near a water source. Water should not stagnate.
  • Plough the land and bring it to the fine tilth.
Application Form

Apply 750 kg of FYM or compost and incorporate by ploughing. Cover the seeds with 500 kg of FYM.

Forming Raised Bed
  • In each cent mark 6 plots of the size 3m x 1.5 m with 30 cm channel in between the plots and all around.
  • Form the channel to a depth of 15 cm.
  • Spread the earth excavated from the channel on the beds and level.
  • NOTE:
    The unit of 6 plots in one cent will for mone unit for irrigation.

Removal Of Ergot affected seeds and Sclerotia to prevent primary infection
  • Dissolve 1 kg.of common salt in 10 litres of water
  • Drop the seeds into the salt solution
  • Remove the ergot and sclerotia affected seeds which will float
  • Wash seeds in fresh water 2 or 3 times to remove the salt on the seeds
  • Dry the seeds in shade
  • Treat the seeds with three packets (600g) of Azozpirillum inoculant.
Treatment of the nursery bed eith insecticides

3 kg. of neem cake powder along with sand spread on the beds and work into the top 2 cm of soil to protect the seedlings from shootfly infestation.

Sowing and covering the seeds
  • Open small rills not deeper than 1 cm on the bed by passing the fingers over it.
  • Sow 3.75 kg of seeds in7.5 cents (0.5 kg per cent)
  • Cover the seeds by smoothening out the rills with hand. Sprinkle 500 kg of FYM or compost evenly and cover the seeds completely with hands.

NOTE
Do not sow the seeds deep as germination will be affected.

IRRIGATION OF THE SEED BED
  • Provide one inlet to each unit of 6 plots to allow water in the channels
  • Allow water to enter the channel and rise up in it. Turn off the water when the raised bed is wet.
  • Irrigated as per the following schedulle.
Light soil Heavy soil
1st immediately after sowing immediately after sowing
2nd on 3rd day after sowing On 3rd dayafter sowing
3rd on 7th day after sowing On 9th dayafter sowing
4th On 12th day after sowing On 18th day after sowing
5th on 17th day after sowing
Protection of seedlings in the nursery from pest attack

I seed bed is not treated before sowing, protect the nursery by applying Neem cake

  • The seedlings should not be kept in nursery for more than 18 days. As they mature, establishment and yhield are affected adversely.
  • Ensure that cracks do not develop in the nursery. This can be avoided by properly adjusting the quantity of irrigation water.

Particulars of cumbu hybrid and varieties

PARTICULARS X 6 WCC 75 K 3 CO 7 X 7
Season-irrigated/rainfed Both Both Both Both Both
Duration (days) 90-100 95 85 90-100 90
Grain yield (kg/ha) 2394 2000 800 2500-2800 2513
Rainfed fodder - 2750 1600 4000 ..
Irrigated Grain 3236 3000 1100 3000-3500 3295
Irrigated fodder - 6250 2500 6300 -
Plant height (cm) 155-175 170-180 140-160 130-145 155-180
Tillers (No) 4-6 2-3 4-7 6-10 4-7
Pigmentation Green Green Light purple Green Non-pigmented
Hairiness Glabrous Glabrous Glabrous Glabrous Glabrous
Days to 50% bloom 55-60 50 50 65-70 50-55
Shape of earhead Spindle Spindle Spindle

Conical/cylindrical/

Spindle

Candle
Bristles Absent Present Nil Nil ..
Length of earhead(in cm) 20-25 25-28 25-28 22-26 25-35
Breadth of earhead(in cm) .. 2-3 2-3 3-4 ..
Grain colour Slate Slate grey Slare grey Slate colour Slate
1000grains weight(gm) 7.7-8.8 8-9 6.6 6.8-7.2 8.0-9.0
Special features Resistant to downy mildew .. .. Resistant to downy mildew Resistant to downy mildew

PREPARATION OF MAIN FIELD

FIELD PREPARATION
  • Plough with an iron plough twice and with country plough twice. Bring the soil into fine tilth.
  • CHISELING FOR SOILS WITH HARD PAN: Chisel the soils having hard pan formation at shallow depths with chisel plough at 0.5 M interval, firstin one direction then in the direction perpendicular to the previous one, once in three years. Apply 12.5 t/ha FYM, or composted coir pith besides chiseling, to get an additional yield of about 30% over control.
APPLICATION OF FYM OR COMPOST

Spread 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compost or composted coir pith uniformly on unploughed soil. Incorporate the manure by working the country plough and apply Azozpirillum to the soil @ 10 packets perha (2000 g)

FORMING RIDGES AND FURROWS/BEDS
  • From ridges and furrows (using 3 ridges) 6 m long and 45 cm apart. If pulses is intercropped, form ridges and furrows 6 m long and 30 cm apart. For CO 7 Cumbu, form ridges 40 cm apart.
  • If ridge planting is not followed, form beds of the size 10m2 or 30 m2 depending upon water availabilty.
  • Form irrigation channels.
  • To conserve soil moiture under rainfed condition, sow the seeds in flat and form furrows between crop rows during intercultivation on third week after sowing.
APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS

Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendations as far as possible. If soil test recommendation is not available follow the blanket recommendation of 70:35:35 kgN, P2O5, K2O/ha for all varieties. For hybrids, apply 80 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per ha. Apply 50 per cent of the recommended nitrogen and full dose of phosphorus and potassium basally.

Combined application of Azospirillum SP 7 and Phosphobacterium along with 75 per cent of the recommended level of N and P is recommended for rainfed conditions.

Method of application: For transplanted crop, open a furrwo more than 5 cm deep on the side of the ridge (1/3 distance from the bottom) place the fertilizer and cover. For the direct sown crop, mark the lines more than 5 cm deep 45 cm apart in the beds for all strains except CO7. For CO7 mark the lines 35 cm apart.Place the fertilizer below 5 cm depth and cover upto 2 cm from the top before sowing. In the case of intercropping with pulses, mark lines more than 5 cm deep 30 cm apart in the beds. Apply fertilizer only the rows in which cumbu is tobe sownand cover upto 2 cm. When Azospirillum inoculant is used for seeds, seedllings and soil apply only 50 kg N/ha for variety, 60 kg N/ha for hybrid in other words, reduce 25% N of soil test recommendations.

APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENT MIXTURE

Apply 122.5 kg/ha of micronutrient mixture formulated by the Department of Agriculture. Mix the mixture with enough sand to make 50 kg and apply on the surface just before planting/after sowing and cover the seeds. Broadcast the mixture on the surface to seed line. If micronutrient mixture is not available apply 25 kg of zic sulphate per ha. Mix the chemical with enough sand to make 50 kg and apply as above.

MANAGEMENT OF MAIN FIELD OPERATIONS

TRANSPLANTING SEEDLINGS OR SOWING PRE-TREATED SEEDS

Transplanted crop

  • Pull out the seedlings when they are 15 to 18 days old.
  • Adopt the spacing 45 x 15 cm for all the varieties except CO7. For CO7 the spacing is 35 x 15 cm.
  • Plant seedlings on the side ridge, half way from the bottom. Depth of planting should be 3 to 5 cm.
  • Root dipping with bio-fertilizers: Prepare the slurry with 5 packets (1000 g)/ha of Azospirillum SP 7 inoculant in 40 lit. of water and dip the roots of the seedlings 15-30 minutes before planting.
Direct sown crop

Soaking of cumbu seeds either in 2% Potassium chloride (KC1) or 3% Sodium Chloride (NaC1) for 16 hours followed by 5 hours shade drying improves germination and stand.

  • Adopt the spacingof 45x15 cm forall varieties except CO7. For CO7, give a spacingof 35x15 cm. If pulse is intercropped , adopt a spacing of 35 x 15 cm for cumbuand 30 x 10 cm for Cowpea and 30 x 10 cm for other pulses. One pair row of cumbu is alternated with a single row of pulse crop.
  • In the furrows in which fertilizers have been applied, place 5kg of seed, allowing them to fall 4-5cm apart (Use higher seed rate of 5 kg of offset mortality). The optimum population should be 1,45,000 per ha.
  • Where pulse seeds are to be sown,drop pulse seeds to fall 5 cm apart and cover.

WEED MANAGEMENT

Hand weed on15th day and again between 30 and 35 days after transplanting.

Direct sown crop

Hand weed twice on15 and 30days after sowing.

THINNING AND GAP FILLING

In direct sown crop after 1st weeding at the time of irrigation, gap fill and thin the crop to a spacing of 15cm between plants; cowpea crop to 20 cm between plants and other pulses crops to 10cm between plants.

TOP DRESSING OF FERTILIZERS

  • Top dress the remaining quantity of nitrogen (50%) 15 days after transplanting for transplanted crop and 30 days after sowing for direct sown crop.
  • In transplanted crop,open a furrow 5 cm deep with a stick or hoe at the bottom ofthe furrow., place the fertilizer asnd cover.
  • In thecase of direct sown crop apply the fertilizer inband. If inter cropped with pulses apply the fertilizer to cumbu crop only
  • After the application of fertilizer,irrigate the crop

EARHEAD PROTECTION

Apply Neem cake powder and ash to protect the earhead. Garlic spray 2%. can also be done.

Water Management

The different growth stages of cumbu are as followsand regulate irrigation according to growth phases. Heading and flowering are the critical phases of water demand.

Vegetative Phase
a.Seedling 1 to 28 days
b. Tillering 19 to 35 days
c.Flowering phase 36 to 55 days
d.Maturity phase 56 to 85 days
STAGES No.of irrigation Days after transplantation/sowing
Transplanted crop Directsown crop
Light soils      
i.Germination 1 1st day after transplanting 1st day after sowing
  2 4thday 4thday
ii.Vegetative phase 1 15th day 17th day
  2 28th day 30th day
iii.Flowering Phase 1 40th day 42nd day
  2 52nd day 55th day
  3 49th day 70th day
iv. Maturity Phase 1 1st day after planting 1st day after sowing
v. Stop irrigation thereafter      
Heavy soils      
i.Germination 1 1st day after planting 1st day after sowing
  2 4thday 5thday
ii.Vegetative phase 1 15th day 15th day
  2 28th day 30th day
iii.Flowering Phase 1 42nd day 45th day
  2 44th day 60th day
iv.Maturity Phase 1 54th day 75th day
v. Stop irrigation thereafter      

NOTE
This is only a guideline and the irrigation schedule is to be adjusted depending upon the prevailing weather conditions.

HARVESTING THE CROP

SYMPTOMS OF MATURITY
  • Leaves will turn yellow and present a dried appearance
  • Grains will be hardened.
HARVESTING
  • Cut the earheads separately.
  • Cut the straw after a week, allowing it to dry and stack it in the field till it canbe transported.
THRESHING, CLEANING, DRYING AND STORING
  • Dry the earheads
  • Thresh in a mechanical thresher or
  • Spread it anddrag a stone roller over it or
  • Cattle thresh

DISEASE MANAGEMENT (SPECIFIC PROBLEMS)

SUGARY AND ERGOT DISEASES (CHEMICALCONTROL)

Spray Psuodomonas sp. + Trichoderma viride when 5-10% flowers have opened and again 50% flowering stage.

RUST

Spray Psuodomonas sp. + Trichoderma viride when the initial symptoms of the diseases are noticed. Repeat the same 10 days after.

Sowing during December-May result in less incidence of rust disease. Control measures are to be adopted when there is rust incidence in the early stages as spread of infection to top leaves results in poor grain filling.

DOWNY MILDEW

Growing downy mildew resistant varieties CO 7, WCC 75 is recommended. Transplanting reduces disease incidence. At the time of planting infected seedlings shouldbe removed. In the direct sown crop, infested plants should be moved upto 45 days after sowing as and when the symptoms are noticed.

Psudomonas sp. may be spraied.at.2kg/ha.

SEED TECHNOLOGY

CUMBU HYBRID/VARIETY/COMPOSITE
SEASON

Winter season - October-December. The parental lines of Pusa 34 cumbu can be raised in the ratio of 8:2 F:M for maximising hybrid seed production.

SPACING

Give a spacing of 45 x 30 cm

PLANTING RATIO

Plant in the ratio of 6:1 ( 6 female lines and 1 male line) for hybrid.

APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS
  N P K(kg/ha)
i.Basal 50 50 50
ii. Top dressing(30th day after sowing 50 .. ..
iii.Foliar application Diammonium phosphate 1% at peak tillering phase
HARVESTING AND THRESHING

The earheads should be harvested at 20-25 per cent moisture content and threshed after reducing the moisture content to 15-20 per cent ina mechanical thresher at 1400 rpm. Harvesting the earheads from late formed tillers (7th onwards) should be avoided as the seed yield and quality declines.

DRYING

Dry the precleaned seeds in a hot-air dryer for 8 hrs to reduce the moisture content to 10 per cent.

GRADING

A grading sieve with the specification of 4/64" (1.6 mm) diameter round perforations was found optimum for obtaining higher recovery of 90-95 per cent good quality seeds. (For WCC 75, use 5/64" round perforated sieve)

SEED TREATMENT

Store the seeds with neem leaf or with nochi leaf.

STORAGE

Treated seeds packed in cloth bag and polythene bags of 700 gauge thick wil be able to remain germinable to an extent of 80-90 per cent respectively over a period of 15 months under ambient temperature and relative humidity obtainable at Coimbatore.

STORAGE HYDRATION-DEHYDRATION FOR PROLONGING THE SHELF LIFE OF SEEDS

Seeds that show a decline in vigour and germinability during the early period of storage should be soaked for three hours in double the volume of Disodium phosphate 10.4 M (36 mg/lit of water). The seeds after soaking should be air-dried first and then sundried until theydry back to 8% moisture content and store it with neem leaf or nochi leaf which will maintain shelf life upto ten months, with minimum loss invigour and viability.

Bajra - Hybrid (Pennisetum glacum)

I.SEASON AND VARIETIES

Districts/Season Varieties/hybrid
1.IRRIGATED  
I.CHITHIRAIPATTAM(March-April)  
All districts except Kanchipuram,Tiruvallur and The Nilgiris WCC 75, K 3, CO 7 x 6 x 7
II.MASIPATTAM(January-February) WCC 75, CO 7, x 6, x 7
2.RAINFED  
I.ADIPATTAM(June-July)  
All districts except Kancheepuram,Tiruvallur and The Nilgiris WCC 75, K 3, CO 7, x 6, x 7 K4HB

II. NURSERY

PREPARATION OF LAND
  • For raising seedlings to plant one ha select 7.5 cents near a water source. Water should not stagnate.
  • Plough the land and bring it to the fine tilth.
APPLICATION OF FYM

Apply 750 kg of FYM or compost and incorporate by ploughing. Cover the seeds with 500 kg of FYM.

FORMING RAISED BED
  • In each cent mark 6 plots of the size 3m x 1.5 m with 30 cm channel in between the plots and all around.
  • Form the channel to a depth of 15 cm.
  • Spread the earth excavated from the channel on the beds and level.

NOTE
The unit of 6 plots in one cent will for mone unit for irrigation.

REMOVAL OF ERGOT AFFECTED SEEDS AND SCLEROTIA TO PREVENT PRIMARY INFECTION
  • Dissolve 1 kg.of common salt in 10 litres of water.
  • Drop the seeds into the salt solution.
  • Remove the ergot and sclerotia affected seeds which will float.
  • Wash seeds in fresh water 2 or 3 times to remove the salt on the seeds.
  • Dry the seeds in shade.
  • Treat the seeds with three packets (600g) of Azozpirillum inoculant.
TREATMENT OF THE NURSERY BED WITH INSECTICIDES

3 kg. of neem cake powder along with sand spread on the beds and work into the top 2 cm of soil to protect the seedlings from shootfly infestation.

SOWING AND COVERING THE SEEDS
  • Open small rills not deeper than 1 cm on the bed by passing the fingers over it.
  • Sow 3.75 kg of seeds in7.5 cents (0.5 kg per cent)
  • Cover the seeds by smoothening out the rills with hand. Sprinkle 500 kg of FYM or compost evenly and cover the seeds completely with hands.

NOTE
Do not sow the seeds deep as germination will be affected.

IRRIGATION OF THE SEED BED
  • Provide one inlet to each unit of 6 plots to allow water in the channels
  • Allow water to enter the channel and rise up in it. Turn off the water when the raised bed is wet.
  • Irrigated as per the following schedulle.
Light soil Heavy soil
1st immediately after sowing immediately after sowing
2nd on 3rd day after sowing On 3rd dayafter sowing
3rd on 7th day after sowing On 9th dayafter sowing
4th On 12th day after sowing On 18th day after sowing
5th on 17th day after sowing
PROTECTION OF SEEDLINGS IN THE NURSERY FROM PEST ATTACK

I seed bed is not treated before sowing, protect the nursery by applying Neem cake

  • The seedlings should not be kept in nursery for more than 18 days. As they mature, establishment and yhield are affected adversely.
  • Ensure that cracks do not develop in the nursery. This can be avoided by properly adjusting the quantity of irrigation water.

III. PARTICULARS OF CUMBU HYBRID AND VARIETIES

PARTICULARS X 6 WCC 75 K 3 CO 7 X 7
Season-irrigated/rainfed Both Both Both Both Both
Duration (days) 90-100 95 85 90-100 90
Grain yield (kg/ha) 2394 2000 800 2500-2800 2513
Rainfed fodder - 2750 1600 4000 ..
Irrigated Grain 3236 3000 1100 3000-3500 3295
Irrigated fodder - 6250 2500 6300 -
Plant height (cm) 155-175 170-180 140-160 130-145 155-180
Tillers (No) 4-6 2-3 4-7 6-10 4-7
Pigmentation Green Green Light purple Green Non-pigmented
Hairiness Glabrous Glabrous Glabrous Glabrous Glabrous
Days to 50% bloom 55-60 50 50 65-70 50-55
Shape of earhead Spindle Spindle Spindle Conical/cylindrical/
Spindle
Candle
Bristles Absent Present Nil Nil ..
Length of earhead(in cm) 20-25 25-28 25-28 22-26 25-35
Breadth of earhead(in cm) .. 2-3 2-3 3-4 ..
Grain colour Slate Slate grey Slare grey Slate colour Slate
1000grains weight(gm) 7.7-8.8 8-9 6.6 6.8-7.2 8.0-9.0
Special features Resistant to downy mildew .. .. Resistant to downy mildew Resistant to downy mildew

IV. PREPARATION OF MAIN FIELD

FIELD PREPARATION
  • Plough with an iron plough twice and with country plough twice. Bring the soil into fine tilth.
  • CHISELING FOR SOILS WITH HARD PAN: Chisel the soils having hard pan formation at shallow depths with chisel plough at 0.5 M interval, firstin one direction then in the direction perpendicular to the previous one, once in three years. Apply 12.5 t/ha FYM, or composted coir pith besides chiseling, to get an additional yield of about 30% over control.
APPLICATION OF FYM OR COMPOST

Spread 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compost or composted coir pith uniformly on unploughed soil. Incorporate the manure by working the country plough and apply Azozpirillum to the soil @ 10 packets perha (2000 g)

FORMING RIDGES AND FURROWS/BEDS
  • From ridges and furrows (using 3 ridges) 6 m long and 45 cm apart. If pulses is intercropped, form ridges and furrows 6 m long and 30 cm apart. For CO 7 Cumbu, form ridges 40 cm apart.
  • If ridge planting is not followed, form beds of the size 10m2 or 30 m2 depending upon water availabilty.
  • Form irrigation channels.
  • To conserve soil moiture under rainfed condition, sow the seeds in flat and form furrows between crop rows during intercultivation on third week after sowing.
APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS

Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendations as far as possible. If soil test recommendation is not available follow the blanket recommendation of 70:35:35 kgN, P2O5, K2O/ha for all varieties. For hybrids, apply 80 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per ha. Apply 50 per cent of the recommended nitrogen and full dose of phosphorus and potassium basally.

Combined application of Azospirillum SP 7 and Phosphobacterium along with 75 per cent of the recommended level of N and P is recommended for rainfed conditions.

Method of application: For transplanted crop, open a furrwo more than 5 cm deep on the side of the ridge (1/3 distance from the bottom) place the fertilizer and cover. For the direct sown crop, mark the lines more than 5 cm deep 45 cm apart in the beds for all strains except CO7. For CO7 mark the lines 35 cm apart.Place the fertilizer below 5 cm depth and cover upto 2 cm from the top before sowing. In the case of intercropping with pulses, mark lines more than 5 cm deep 30 cm apart in the beds. Apply fertilizer only the rows in which cumbu is tobe sownand cover upto 2 cm. When Azospirillum inoculant is used for seeds, seedllings and soil apply only 50 kg N/ha for variety, 60 kg N/ha for hybrid in other words, reduce 25% N of soil test recommendations.

APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENT MIXTURE

Apply 122.5 kg/ha of micronutrient mixture formulated by the Department of Agriculture. Mix the mixture with enough sand to make 50 kg and apply on the surface just before planting/after sowing and cover the seeds. Broadcast the mixture on the surface to seed line. If micronutrient mixture is not available apply 25 kg of zic sulphate per ha. Mix the chemical with enough sand to make 50 kg and apply as above.

V.MANAGEMENT OF MAIN FIELD OPERATIONS

TRANSPLANTING SEEDLINGS OR SOWING PRE-TREATED SEEDS
Transplanted crop
  • Pull out the seedlings when they are 15 to 18 days old.
  • Adopt the spacing 45 x 15 cm for all the varieties except CO7. For CO7 the spacing is 35 x 15 cm
  • Plant seedlings on the side ridge, half way from the bottom. Depth of planting should be 3 to 5 cm.
  • Root dipping with bio-fertilizers: Prepare the slurry with 5 packets (1000 g)/ha of Azospirillum SP 7 inoculant in 40 lit. of water and dip the roots of the seedlings 15-30 minutes before planting.
Direct sown crop

Soaking of cumbu seeds either in 2% Potassium chloride (KC1) or 3% Sodium Chloride (NaC1) for 16 hours followed by 5 hours shade drying improves germination and stand.

  • Adopt the spacingof 45x15 cm forall varieties except CO7. For CO7, give a spacingof 35x15 cm. If pulse is intercropped , adopt a spacing of 35 x 15 cm for cumbuand 30 x 10 cm for Cowpea and 30 x 10 cm for other pulses. One pair row of cumbu is alternated with a single row of pulse crop.
  • In the furrows in which fertilizers have been applied, place 5kg of seed, allowing them to fall 4-5cm apart (Use higher seed rate of 5 kg of offset mortality). The optimum population should be 1,45,000 per ha.
  • Where pulse seeds are to be sown,drop pulse seeds to fall 5 cm apart and cover.
WEED MANAGEMENT

Hand weed on15th day and again between 30 and 35 days after transplanting.

Direct sown crop

Hand weed twice on15 and 30days after sowing.

THINNING AND GAP FILLING

In direct sown crop after 1st weeding at the time of irrigation, gap fill and thin the crop to a spacing of 15cm between plants; cowpea crop to 20 cm between plants and other pulses crops to 10cm between plants.

TOP DRESSING OF FERTILIZERS
  • Top dress the remaining quantity of nitrogen (50%) 15 days after transplanting for transplanted crop and 30 days after sowing for direct sown crop.
  • In transplanted crop,open a furrow 5 cm deep with a stick or hoe at the bottom ofthe furrow., place the fertilizer asnd cover.
  • In thecase of direct sown crop apply the fertilizer inband. If inter cropped with pulses apply the fertilizer to cumbu crop only.
  • After the application of fertilizer,irrigate the crop.
EARHEAD PROTECTION

Apply Neem cake powder and ash to protect the earhead. Garlic spray 2%. can also be done.

VI. WATER MANAGEMENT

The different growth stages of cumbu are as followsand regulate irrigation according to growth phases. Heading and flowering are the critical phases of water demand.

Vegetative Phase a.Seedling 1 to 28 days
b. Tillering 19 to 35 days
c.Flowering phase 36 to 55 days
d.Maturity phase 56 to 85 days
STAGES No.of irrigation Days after transplantation/sowing
Transplanted crop Directsown crop
Light soils      
i.Germination 1 1st day after transplanting 1st day after sowing
  2 4thday 4thday
ii.Vegetative phase 1 15th day 17th day
  2 28th day 30th day
iii.Flowering Phase 1 40th day 42nd day
  2 52nd day 55th day
  3 49th day 70th day
iv. Maturity Phase 1 1st day after planting 1st day after sowing
v. Stop irrigation thereafter      
Heavy soils      
i.Germination 1 1st day after planting 1st day after sowing
  2 4thday 5thday
ii.Vegetative phase 1 15th day 15th day
  2 28th day 30th day
iii.Flowering Phase 1 42nd day 45th day
  2 44th day 60th day
iv.Maturity Phase 1 54th day 75th day
v. Stop irrigation thereafter      

NOTE:
This is only a guideline and the irrigation schedule is to be adjusted depending upon the prevailing weather conditions.

VII. HARVESTING THE CROP

SYMPTOMS OF MATURITY
  • Leaves will turn yellow and present a dried appearance.
  • Grains will be hardened.
HARVESTING
  • Cut the earheads separately
  • Cut the straw after a week, allowing it to dry and stack it in the field till it canbe transported.
THRESHING, CLEANING, DRYING AND STORING
  • Dry the earheads
  • Thresh in a mechanical thresher or
  • Spread it anddrag a stone roller over it or
  • Cattle thresh

VII. DISEASE MANAGEMENT (SPECIFIC PROBLEMS)

1. SUGARY AND ERGOT DISEASES (CHEMICALCONTROL)

Spray Psuodomonas sp. + Trichoderma viride when 5-10% flowers have opened and again 50% flowering stage.

2.RUST

Spray Psuodomonas sp. + Trichoderma viride when the initial symptoms of the diseases are noticed. Repeat the same 10 days after.

Sowing during December-May result in less incidence of rust disease. Control measures are to be adopted when there is rust incidence in the early stages as spread of infection to top leaves results in poor grain filling.

DOWNY MILDEW

Growing downy mildew resistant varieties CO 7, WCC 75 is recommended. Transplanting reduces disease incidence. At the time of planting infected seedlings shouldbe removed. In the direct sown crop, infested plants should be moved upto 45 days after sowing as and when the symptoms are noticed.

Psudomonas sp. may be spraied.at.2kg/ha.

IX. SEED TECHNOLOGY

CUMBU HYBRID/VARIETY/COMPOSITE

SEASON

Winter season - October-December. The parental lines of Pusa 34 cumbu can be raised in the ratio of 8:2 F:M for maximising hybrid seed production.

SPACING

Give a spacing of 45 x 30 cm

PLANTING RATIO

Plant in the ratio of 6:1 ( 6 female lines and 1 male line) for hybrid.

APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS
  N P K(kg/ha)
i.Basal 50 50 50
ii. Top dressing(30th day after sowing 50 .. ..
iii.Foliar application Diammonium phosphate 1% at peak tillering phase
HARVESTING AND THRESHING

The earheads should be harvested at 20-25 per cent moisture content and threshed after reducing the moisture content to 15-20 per cent ina mechanical thresher at 1400 rpm. Harvesting the earheads from late formed tillers (7th onwards) should be avoided as the seed yield and quality declines.

DRYING

Dry the precleaned seeds in a hot-air dryer for 8 hrs to reduce the moisture content to 10 per cent.

GRADING

A grading sieve with the specification of 4/64" (1.6 mm) diameter round perforations was found optimum for obtaining higher recovery of 90-95 per cent good quality seeds. (For WCC 75, use 5/64" round perforated sieve)

SEED TREATMENT

Store the seeds with neem leaf or with nochi leaf.

STORAGE

Treated seeds packed in cloth bag and polythene bags of 700 gauge thick wil be able to remain germinable to an extent of 80-90 per cent respectively over a period of 15 months under ambient temperature and relative humidity obtainable at Coimbatore.

STORAGE HYDRATION-DEHYDRATION FOR PROLONGING THE SHELF LIFE OF SEEDS

Seeds that show a decline in vigour and germinability during the early period of storage should be soaked for three hours in double the volume of Disodium phosphate 10.4 M (36 mg/lit of water). The seeds after soaking should be air-dried first and then sundried until theydry back to 8% moisture content and store it with neem leaf or nochi leaf which will maintain shelf life upto ten months, with minimum loss invigour and viability.

Maize - Variety

Millets - HYBRID MAIZE (Zea mays)

I. SEASON AND VARIETIES

SEASON> STRAIN>
Rainfed  
1.Adipattam(July-August) COH1, CO1, COH2, COH3, COBC1,
COH (M) 4
2.Puratasipattam(September-October CO1,COH1,COH2,COH3,COBC1, COH (M) 4
3.Thaipattam(January-February) K1,Ganga 5,COH1, CO1,COH2,COH3,COBC1, COH (M) 4

II.PREPARATION OF THE FIELD (IRRIGATED CROP)

FIELD PREPARATION

In Western Zone black soils, plough the field with disc plough once followed by cultivator ploughing twice along with composted coir pith @ 12.5 t/ha and 150% recommended N to enhance the yield in maize-sunflower cropping sequence

Plough twice with iron ploughorthreeor four times with a country plough. In between the ploughing, break the clods, if necessary, or plough six times with a country plough till a fine tilth is obtained.

APPLICATION OF FYM OR COMPOST

Spread 12.5 t/ha of FYM or composted coir pith evenly on the unploughed field along with 10 packets of Azospirillum (2000 g/ha) and incorporate in the soil..

FORMING RIDGES AND FURROWS OR BEDS
  • Form ridges and fullows, 6 m long and 60 cm apart.
  • Form irrigation channels across the furrows.
  • If ridges and furrows are not made, form beds of size 10 m2 or 20 m2 depending on the availability of water.
  • Use a bund former or ridge plough to economise cost of production.
APPLICATION OF FERILIZERS
  • Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendation as far as possible. If soil test recommendation is not available adopt a blanket recommendation of 135:62.5:50 NPK kg/ha.
  • Apply quarer of the dose of N and full dose of P2O5 and K2O basally before sowing.
  • In the case of ridge planted crop, open a furrow 6 cm deep on the side of the ridge at two thirds the distance from the top of the ridge.
  • Apply the fertilizer mixtue along the furrows evenly and cover toa depth of 4 cm with soil.
  • If bed system of planting is followed,open furrows 6 cm deep at a distance of 60 cm apart.
  • Place the fertilizer mixture alongthe furrows evenly and cover to a depth of 4 cm with soil.
  • When Azozpirillum is used as seed and soil application, apply 100 g of N/ha (25% reduction on the total N recommended by soil test ).
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

Nitrogen deficiency: Leaves become yellow, older leaves show drying at tips with progress along mid veins, stalks become slender.

Phosphorus deficiency: Leaves are purplish green during early growth. Growth spindly,slow maturity, irregular ear formation.

Potassium deficiency: Leaves show yellowor yellowish green streaks-become corrugated - Tips and marginal scorch. Tips end inears are poorly filled. Stalks have short internode-plants become weakand may fall downs.

Magnesiumdeficiency: Older or lower leaves are the first to become chlorotic at margins and between veins/ Streaked appearance of leaves. Necrotic or chlorotic spots seen inleaves.

Zinc deficiency: Older leaves haveyellow streaks or chlorotic striping between veins. In several cases, unfolding of young leaves may be white or yellow.

Iron deficiency: Interveinal chlorosis. The entire crop may exhibit bleached appearance.

APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENT
  • 12.5 kg of micronutrient mixture formulated by the Department of Agriculture, Tamilnadu,mixed with sand tomake a total quantity of 50 kg/ha is to be applied.
  • Apply the mixture overthe furrows and two thirds in the top of ridges, ifridge planting is followed
  • If bed systemof sowing is followed, apply the micronutrient mixture over the furrows.
  • Do not incorporate the micronutrient mixture in the soil.

III.MANAGEMENT OF MAIN FIELD

SEED RATE

Select good quality seeds and adopt the seed rate; hybrids - 15 kg/ha and varieties 20 kg/ha.

SPACING

Adopt a spacing of 20 cm between plants in the rows which are 60 cm apart. Population: 80,600/ha.

PRE-TREATMENT OF THE SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES
  • Treat the seeds with Psudomonas sp.@ 2 g per kg of seed .
  • Seeds treated with Biocides may be treated with three packets(600g/ha) of Azozpirillum .
  • Store the seeds with neem leafs or nochi leaf in Polylined cloth to maintain seed viability for more than 10 months .
SOWING
  • Dibble the seeds at a depth of 4 cm along the furrow inwhich fertilizers are placed and covered with soil.
  • Put one seed per hole inthe case of Ganga 5, CO1 and two seeds per hole inthe case of K1
WEED MANAGEMENT

Hoe and hand weed on the 17th or 18th day of sowing.

NOTE: If pulse crop is to be raised as intercrop, do not use Atrazine.

THINNING AND GAP FILLING
  • Leave only one healthy and vigorous seedling per hole and remove theother on the 7th or 8th day of sowing.
  • Where seedlings have not germinated, dibble seeds at the rate of 2 seeds per hill immediately pot water.
PEST MANAGEMENT

Mix 40 kg.Neem cake powder with sand to make up a total quantity of 50 kg and apply in theleaf whorls on the 20th day of sowing: Repete the same once after 20 days.

NEMATODE

If lesion nematodes are present apply neem cake in the seed holes at the time of sowing.

DISEASE MANAGEMENT
  • Downy mildew: CO 1,. COH1 and COH 2 are resistant to downy mildew. Rogue out affected plants. Spray Psudomonas sp. 2gr/lit.of water 20 days after sowing.
  • Leaf spot: Spray Psudomonas sp. 2gr/lit.of water when the disease intensity reaches grade 3.
HOEING, HAND WEEDING AND EARTHING UP
  • Hoe and hand-weed on the 30th day of sowing.
  • Demolish the original ridges.
  • Earth up and form new ridges so that the plants come directly on the top of the ridges. This will provide additional anchorage to the plants.
TOP DRESSING WITH N
  • Open a furrrow 5 cm depth along the base of the ridge (10 cm away from the base of the plants) with a hand-hoe or stick.
  • Place half of the dose of N onthe 25th day of sowing along the furrows evenly and cover it with soil.
APPLICATION OF INSECTICIDES

Apply Neem cake to the soil. Spray with Neem kernal extract 5%.

APPLICATION OF FUNGICIDES

Spray Psudomonas sp. 2gr/lit.of water.if initial foliar symptoms of diseases are noticed.

SECOND TOP DRESSING WITH N

Place the remaining quarter of N onthe 45th dayof planting as furrow application at a depth of 5 cm and 10 cm away from the base of the plants and cover with soil.

IV. WATER MANAGEMENT

Regulate irrigation according to the following growth phase of the crop

Germination phase
1 to 14 days
Vegetative phase
15 to 39 days
Flowering phase
40 to 65 days
Maturity phase
66 to 95 days

Stage No.of Irrigation Days after sowing
K1/COH 1 Ganga 5
Heavy soils      
Irrigate for germination 1 Irrigate after sowing Irrigate after sowing
  2 Life irrigation 4th day Life irrigation 4th day
Vegetative phase 1 12th day 12th day
  2 25thday 25th day
  3 36thday 36th day
NOTE: Maize crop is sensitive to both moisture stress and excessive moisture, hence regulate irrigation according to the requirement
Irrigate copiously during the flowering phase 1 48th day 48th day
  2 60th day 60th day
Control irrigation during maturity phase 1 72nd day 76th day
Stop irrigation 10 days prior to harvest
NOTE: Ensure optimum moisture availability during the most critical phase (40 to 65 days after sowing); otherwise yield will be reduced by a considerable extent. Skipping irrigation at seeding,knee high and dough stage may be followed under water scarce situation.
Light soils      
Irrigate for germination 1 Irrigate after sowing Irrigate after sowing
  2 Life irrigation 4th day Life irrigation4th day
Vegetative phse 1 12th day 12th day
  2 22nd day 22nd day
  3 31st day 32nd day
  4 40th day ..
Irrigate copiously during the flowering 1 42nd day 50thday
  2 52nd day 50thday
  2 62nd day 72nd day
  4 72nd day 80th day
Control irrigation during maturity phase 1 75th day 99th day
Stop irrigation 10 days prior to harvest

Yield maximisation: Adopt plant populationof 1,11,000 plants (60 x15 cm) with NPK at 200:100:80 kg/ha. Apply N and K inthree equal splits at sowing, knee high and taselling stages. Apply ZnSO4 at 25 kg/ha as basal in addition to other recommended practices.

V. HARVESTING THE CROP

STAGE OF HARVEST
  • Observe the following symptoms, taking into consideration the average duration ofthe crop. The sheath covering the cob will turn yellow and dry at maturity.
  • The seeds become fairly hard and dry. At this stage the crop is ready for harvest.
HARVESTING THE CROP
  • Break off or cut and remove the cobs alone along with the sheath.
  • Remove the sheath to separate the cob
  • Carry out harvest operations at a single stage.
THRESHING THE COBS
  • Dry the cobs in the sun till the grains are dy.
  • Use mechanical hreshers for threshing or beat wiht a stickand separate the grains from the cob.
  • Clean the seeds by winnowing.
  • Collect and store the dry grains in gunnies.
STACKING THE STRAW FOR FEEDING CATTLE
  • Do not dry maize fodder as it is a good cattle feed wshen green.
  • Harvest the crop and cut the green straw into bits with a chaff cutter or chopping knife and feed the cattlle.

VI. SPECIFIC PROBLEMS

1.COB BORER

Apply Neem kerenal extract 5% at silk drying stage. Repeat the insecticidal application 15 days later

In deep black clayey soils of Western Zone (Perianaickenapalayam Soil series), the low permeability and poor infiltration are the main soil problems.

To over come these physical constraints, in a maize-groundnut cropping sequence, ploughing the field with mould board plough once, followed by disc harrowing twice for the first crop of maize and working the cultivator twice for the second crop of groundnut canbe done.

RAINFED MAIZE
FIELD PREPARATION

Chisel the soil having hard pan formation at shallow depths with chisel plough at 0.5 M interval first in onedirection andthen inthe direction perpendicular to the previous one once inthree years. Apply 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compostor composted coir pith besides chiseling, to get an additional yield of about 30% over control.

2.APPLICATION OFFYM OR COMPOST:

Spread 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compost or composted coir pith evenly on the unploughed fieldalong with 10 packets of Azospirillum (2000 g/ha) and incorporate in the soil.

3.APPLICATION OF FERTILIZER
  • Apply NPK as per soil test recommendation as far as possible. If soil test recommendation is not available, adopt a blanket recommendation of 60:30:30 NPK kg/ha for Alfisols and 40:20:0 NPK kg/ha for Vertisols.
  • Apply halfof Nand full dose of P2O5 and K2O with enriched FYM as basal along with Azospirillum (10 packets/ha).
  • Top dress remaining half of Nat tasseling.
4.SEED RATE

Select good quality seeds. Adopt the seed rate; Hybrid - 15 kg/ha and varieties - 20 kg/ha.

5.SPACING

Adopt a spacing of 45 cm between rows and 20 cmbetween plants in the row.

Population : 1,11,000 plants/ha.

6.PRE-TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES
  • Treat the seeds with Psudomonas sp.2 g/kg of seeds.
  • Seeds treated withBiocides may be treated with three packets (600 g/ha) of Azospirillum.
7.SOWING

Dibble or drill the seeds at a depth of 4 cm.

8.CROPPING SYSTEMS
  • Intercropping system of maize + cowpea or maize + blackgram is recommended for higher net returns in the red lateritic soils of Southern districts.
  • For Vertisols of Southern districts, maize + redgram intercropping systems is ideal.

VII. SEED TECHNOLOGY

1.SEASON

November-December

2.SPACING

Give a spacing of 45 x 10 cm for varieties and 60 x 25 cm hybrids (CO 1).

3.SEED RATE

Use a seed rate of 10 kg/ha.

4. PLANTING RATIO

For multiplication of'A' line (A X B) 12 kg/ha, 4 kg/ha plant in the ratio of 4:2 to female to male line.

5.APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS

Basal: 40:75:40 NPK kg/ha. Top dressing 20th day 50:0:0 NPK in kg/ha. Top dressing 40th day 60:0:35 kg/ha. For CO 1 hybrid, 200:100:100.

6. HARVESTING

Harvest the crop when the husk completely turns into straw colour. Manual dehusking is better. Sort the cobs true to type (remove ill filled diseased cobs and cobs having kernel colour variation).

7.SHELLING

Theshelling moisture content should be 15-18%. Shelling the seed cob by beating witha pliable stick and also by maize sheller is safer to seed quality. Injury due to improper shelling amounts to 48% pericarp injury will promote Penicillium sp. Mechanical injury can be estimated by treating the kernels with 20% FeC13 or staining with 0.25% tetrazolium solution.

8.GRADING

Grade theseeds in cleaner using the sieve with a size 18/64" (7.28 mm).

9. SEED TREATMENT

Slurry treat seeds with 8% moisture content either with Neem leaf or nochi leaf Treated seeds can be stored for one year in cloth bag.

MAIZE - MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION

Particulars K 1 Ganga 5 CO 1 COH 1
Parentage Composite variety (CM-111xCM 202)xcm 500 Unit Selection Indonesian populationSuwan 1
UMI 29 x UMI 51
Duration(days) 80-85 100-110 105-110 90-95
Area of adoption Pudukottai & Pattukottai Entire state Coimbatore,Erode-Tirunelveli, Thanjavur & Pudukottai
All districts
Rainfed/Irrigated Both Both Both Both
Grain Yield Kg/Ha-
Irrigated 3000 4000 6250 5000
Rainfed 2000 3000 3380 3750
Special Features Short duration drought toleran, possess good cooking and keeping quality Suited for factory purposes Resistant to downy mildew, well development ears Short duration,drought tolerant, resistant to downy mildew
Sheath colour Green Green Deep orange grain colour Deep yellowand flint type
Node Colour Green Green Green Green
Mid rib White White White White
Cob size Medium Big Big Medium
Husk coverage Full Full Full Full
Grain colour Yellow Deep yellow Deep orange Deep yellow
Nature of kernaels Flint Flint or semi-flint Flint Flint
Particulars COH 2 COH 3 COBc 1(Baby Corn)
Parentage UMIO 810 x UMI 90 (UMI 101xUMI 130)x(UMI 90xUMI 285) Composite involving UMI 836 and UMI 836-1-2-55-65
Duration(days) 100-105 100 55-65
Area of adoption Coimbatore,Erode,Thanjavur
Pudukottai,Madurai, Theni,Tirunelveli,Thoothukudi
Coimbatore,Dindigul, Erode, Thanjavur, Pudukottai All maize growing areas
Rainfed/Irrigated Both Both Both
Grain Yield Kg/Ha-
Irrigated 5400 5023 6.7 t tender cobs kg/ha & 32.3 t green fodder/ha 3t tender cobs/ha
Rainfed 3500 4215
Special Features Resistant to downy mildew and bold grain Resistant to downy mildew, very high seed set, high starch, high protein First Baby corn, multiple cob production (2 to 3 cobs/plant) tender cobs between 50 to 65 days
Sheath colour .. Green Green
Node Colour Green Green Green
Mid rib White White White
Cob size Medium Big Small
Husk coverage Full Nil Nil
Grain colour Yellow Orange Yellow
Nature of kernaels Flint Flint Dent
Particulars UMI 90 UMI 285 UMI 112 CO H (M) 4
Parentage - - - -
Duration(days) 100-105 90-95 90-95
Area of adoption Wider adaptability over seasons and regions
Rainfed/Irrigated Both
Grain Yield Kg/Ha-
Irrigated 5694
Rainfed 4521
Special Features Risk free crop in downy mildew epidemic regions
Morphological characters
Plant height in cms 195-205 190-200 163-168 215-225
Stem Green Mostly green, rarely pink Mostly green, rarely pink Mostly green, rarely pink
Leaves Pubesent, leaf base having white hairs Pubesent Pubesent, errect Pubesent
Cob Occurs between 7-9 node Occurs between 6-8 node Occurs between 7-8 node Occurs between 6-8 node. Mostly single rarely double
Glum Green and purple tinge Green and purple tinge Yellow and Green Green and purple tinge
Silk Green to pinkish Green to pinkish Pinkish
Grain colour Yellow Yellow Yellow
Grain type Flint Flint Flint

Millets - Variety Sorghum (Sorghum biccolor)

1.SEASON AND VARIETIES

DISTRICTS/SEASON VARIETIES/HYBRIDS
Kanchipuram,Tiruvallur
1.Thaipattam CO.21, K5,CSH5,CO.26,BSR 1, COH 4
2.Chithiraipatam K4, CSH 5,COH 3, CO 26, BSR 1, COH 4
3.Adipatam K 5 , K Tall, COH 3, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1, COH 4
4.Puratasipattam K5, K Tall, CO 25, CO26,BSR 1
Vellore,Tiruvannamalai  
1.Thaipattam CO 21, K5, CSH 5, COH 3, CO 26, COH 4, BSR 1
2.Chithiraipattam CO 21, CSAH 5, COH 3, CO 26, BSR 1, COH 4
3.Adipattam CO 19. K5, K Tall, COH 3, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1, COH 4
4.Puratasipattam CO 21, K5, K Tall, CO 25, CO 26,BSR 1
Cuddalore,Villupuram  
1.Thaipattam CO 21, CSH5, COH 3, CO 26, BSR 1
2.Chithiraipatam CSH 5, COH 3, CO 26, BSR 1
3.Adipattam K5, K Tall, COH 3, CO 25, CO 26, CO 21, CSH 5, BSR 1, COH 4
4.Puratasipattam CO 21, K 5, K Tall, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1
Tiruchirapalli,Karur,Perambalur  
1.Thaipatam CO 25, CSH 5, COH 3, COH 4, BSR 1
2.Chithiraipattam CO 25, CO 21, CSH 5, COH 3, BSR 1, COH 4
3.Adipattam K5, K Tall, COH 3, CO 25, CO 26,BSR 1
4.Puratasipattam K Tall, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1
Kanyakumari  
1.Thaipatam K8
2.Chithiraipattam K8
3.Adipattam K3
4.Puratasipattam K3
Salem,Namakkal  
1.Thaipatam CO 21, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1
2.Chithiraipattam CO 18, CO 26, BSR 1
3.Adipattam CO 19, P{aiyur 1, Paiyur 2, BSR 1
4.Puratasipattam CO 21, CO 25, CO 26, Paiyur 2, BSR 1
Dharmapuri  
1.Thaipatam CO 21, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1
2.Chithiraipattam CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1
3.Adipattam CO 19, CO26, Paiyur 1, Paiyur 2
4.Puratasipattam CO 21, CO 25, CO 26, Paiyur 2
Coimbatore  
1.Thaipattam CO 21, CO 25, CO26, CSH 5, COH 4, BSR 1
2.Chithiraipattam CO 25, CO 26, CSH 5, BSR 1, COH 4
3.Adipattam CO 21, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1
4.Puratasipattam CO 21, CO 25, CO 26
Erode  
1.Thaipattam CO21, CO 25, CO 26, CSH 5, COH 4, BSR 1
2.Chithiraipattam CO 25, CO 26, CSH 5, BSR 1, COH 4
3.Adipattam CO 21, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1, Paiyur 2
4.Puratasipattam CO 21, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1, Paiyur 2
Pudukottai  
1.Thaipattam CO 21, CO 25, COH 3, CSH 5, BSR 1, COH 4
2.Chithirapattam. CO 25, COH 3,CSH 5, BSR 1, COH 4
3.Adipattam CO 23, CO 25, CO 26, COH 3, K Tall, BSR 1, COH 4
4.Puratasipattam CO 21, CO 25, CO 26, K Tall,BSR 1
Madurai,Dindigul,Theni  
1.Thaipattam CO 25, CO 26, CSAH 5, COH 3, K5, K8, COH 4, BSR 1
2.Chithiraipattam CO 25, COH 3, CSH 5, CO 26, K8,BSR 1, COH 4
3.Adipattam CO21, CO 25, CO 26, COH 3, K5, CSH 5, K8, BSR 1, COH 4, APK 1
4.Puratasipattam CO 21, CO 25, CO26, K Tall,K8, BSR 1, APK 1
Ramanathapuram,Sivaganga,Virudhunagar  
1.Thaipattam K5,K4, COH 3, CSH5, CO 26, K8,. BSR 1, COH 4
2.Chithiraipattam COH 3, CO 26, CSH 5, K8,BSR 1, COH 4
3.Adipattam CO 21, COH 3, CSH 5,K8,BSR 1, COH 4, APK 1
4.Puratasipatam CO 26, K10, CO 25, K5, K Tall, K8, BSR 1, APK 1
Tirunelveli,Thoothukudi  
1.Thaipatam K8, CO 25, CO 21, K4, COH 3, CO 26, COH 4, BSR 1
2.Chithiraipattam K8, CO 25, K4, CSH 5, COH 3, CO 26, COH 4, BSR 1, K9 for Tenkasi tract
3.Adipattam K8, CO 21, K4,K Tall, COH 3, CO 25, CO 26, BSR 1, APK 1
4.Puratasipattam CO 25,K Tall, CO26, K8, K10, BSR 1, APK 1
Note: Thaipattam: January-February, Chithiraipattam: April-May, Adipattam: June-July, Puratasipattam: September-October

II. SELECTION OF SEEDS

Millets - Variety Sorghum (Sorghum biccolor)

Quantiy of seeds required
Irrigated Transplanted 7.5 kg/ha.Direct sown 10 kg/ha
Rainfed Direct sown 15 kg/ha
Sorghum under irrigated condition is raised both as a direct sown and as a transplanted crop
Irrigated transplanted crop

Transplanted crop has the following advantages:

  • Main field durationis reduced by 10days.
  • Shoot fly, which attacks direct sown crops during the first 3 weeks and which is difficult to control canbe effectively and economically controlled in the nursery itself.
  • Seedlings which show chlorotic and downy mildew symptoms can be eliminated, thereby incidence ofdowny mildew in the main field can be minimised.
  • Optimum population can be maintained as only healthy seedlings are used for transplanting.
  • Seed rate can also be reduced by 2.5 kg/ha.
Population

60 plants for 10 m2, leaving only one healthy plant per hill.

III.PARTICULARS OF SORGHUM VARIETIES

 

PARTICULARS K5 K7 CO 19 CO 26
Parentage Reselection from IS 3541 K3 x M 35-1 A mutant from CO.2 Derivate of MS 8271 x IS 3691
Duration(days) 90-95 105-110 145 105-110
Area(districts) All districts Southern dists. Salem & D'puri ..
Season (Pattam) Adi Puratasi .. All seasons
Rainfed Puratasi .. Puratasi ..
Irrigated Thai .. .. ..
Grain yield kg/ha        
Rainfed 2750 690 900 4500
Irrigated 3500 .. .. 6000
Fodder yield kg/ha        
Rainfed 8750 20,000 8000 14000
Irrigated 10500 .. .. 19000
Stalk Juicy,Sweet Juicy,Sweet,non-pithy Pithy Juicy, Sweet
Height(cm) 170 220 370 160-190
Sheath colour Brown Reddish purple purple Green
Node Green,glabrous Green,glabrous Green,hairy Green
Midrib Dull Dull white White Dull white
Earhead shape Lanceolate Obovate Ovate Long cylindrical
Compactness Semi-open Semi-compact Open Semi compact
Grain Colour Light green,pearly White,pearly White, pearly Pearly white
Special feature .. .. .. ..

 

         
PARTICULARS CO 20 (Fodder) CO 21 K4 K8
Parentage Sele.from inter-specific cross CO 11xS.halapense Mutant of CSV 5(dwarf) CO 18 x K 22 IS 12611 x SV 108
Duration(days) 55-60 100-105 90 85
Area(districts) .. All dists. Southern dists. Southern districts
Season (Pattam) All seasons Chithirai (Pre-monsoon sowing) Thai, Chithirai Puratasipattam
Rainfed .. Puratasi,Adi .. Puratasipattam
Irrigated .. Thai,Chithirai .. ..
Grain yield kg/ha        
Rainfed .. 2750 3000 2440
Irrigated .. 4250 .. ..
Fodder yield kg/ha        
Rainfed 20800 15,000 8000 7300
Irrigated 44500 18750 .. ..
Stalk Juicy,Sweet,brixm7% Juicy,Sweet, Juicy, Non pithy ..
Height(cm) 260 200 Medium tall 170-180
Sheath colour Green Reddish purple Reddish purple Reddish purple
Node Green, Green,glabrous Green, ..
Midrib Dull White Dull white Dull White Dull white
Earhead shape Loose panicle blackish purple Glume Ovate Ovate ..
Compactness Loose Semi-compact Compact Semi compact
Grain Colour Yellow White,pearly White, pearly Pearly white
Special feature Suited for ratooning Moderately resistant to major pests & diseases.Suited forsummer cropping under irrigation insouthern districts. .Suited forsummer cropping under irrigation insouthern districts.. Tolerant to drought, moderate resistant to shootfly, stem borer

 

         
PARTICULARS K9 K 10 COH 4 PAIYUR 1
Parentage Hybrid derivate (M.36200 x Tenkasi Vellai x Tenkasi Vellai) K7 x SPV 102 296A x TNS30 CO 19 x CO 24
Duration(days) 120 110-115 105-110 145-150
Area(districts) Tenkasi Vellaichollam tract ... ... ..
Season (Pattam) .. .. .. ..
Rainfed Chithiraipattam Puratasi Thai, Chithirai Adi, Puratasipattam
Irrigated .. .. .. ..
Grain yield kg/ha        
Rainfed 2000 1600 .. 1000
Irrigated .. .. 6500 ..
Fodder yield kg/ha        
Rainfed 8300 16,000 .. 9000
Irrigated .. .. 20000 ..
Stalk Green Juicy,Sweet, Juicy Juicy.
Height(cm) 190-200 250 200-215 300
Sheath colour Reddish purple Reddish purple Green Green
Node .. Green,glabrous Green Green
Midrib White Dull white White white
Earhead shape Erect, obovate Erect,Loose Elliptic Lax panicle
Compactness Semi compact Semi-open Semi Compact open
Grain Colour Pearly white Dull White lustrous Pearly White, Pearly white
Special feature Field tolerant to drought Good dry fodder sorghum for rainfed High yield, low incidence of leaf diseases, grain mould & sugary disease Tolerant todrought, non lodging photosensitive

 

PARTICULARS CO 25 CSH 5 K Tall COH 3
Parentage derivative 3 way cross 2077A x CS 3541 2219 A x IS 3541 2077Ax699 Tall
Duration(days) 115-120 100 90 105-110
Season (Pattam) All seasons Thai,Chithirai All seasons All seasons
Grain yield kg/ha        
Rainfed 3680 4000 3750 3000
Irrigated 6000 4500 42500 6000
Fodder yield kg/ha        
Rainfed 13250 8750 11250 12500
Irrigated 17500 12500 13250 15000
Stalk Juicy sweet Pithy Juicy Juicy, Sweet
Height(cm) 190 .. .. ..
Sheath colour Green Reddish Brown Tan
Node Green Green Green Green
Midrib Dull White Dull Dull White Dull white
Earhead shape Long cylindrical Lanceolate Lanceolate Lanceolate
Compactness Semi compact Semi-compact Semi Open Semi loose
Grain Colour white Pearly Cream pearly CreamPearly Pearly white
Special feature .. .. .. Striga resistant non-lodging

 

PARTICULARS BSR 1 Paiyur 2 APK 1
Parentage (Multiple cross derivate SC 108-3 x ICSV 4) 16-3-1 x (MR-801 x R 2751) 4-1-1 Pureline selection from IS 15845 Hybrid derivative of TNS 30 x CO 26
Duration(days) 105-110 90-95 105-110
Area(districts) Western zone(Coimbatore,Erode parts of Salem,Trichy,Perambalur,Karur and Dindigul Salem,Namakkal Southern dists.of Tamilnadu
Season (Pattam) Khariff (rainfed) andsummer (irrigated) Rainfed-Adi and Purattasi June-July (Adi pattam) as rainfed Sep.Oct.(Purattasipattam)as rainfed
Rainfed June-July .. ..
Irrigated December-January .. ..
Grain yield kg/ha      
Rainfed 2500-35006000-6500 2113 2619 kg/ha
Irrigated 6000-6500 .. ..
Fodder yield kg/ha      
Rainfed 1180 8789 8090
Irrigated 9600 .. ..
Stalk Juicy,Sweet, Juicy,Sweet, pithy
Height(cm) 150-180 200-215 175
Sheath colour Reddish purple Green Tan
Node Green, Green, Green,
Midrib Dull White white Dull White
Earhead shape Longcylindrical elliptic Medium cylindrical
Compactness Semi compact Semi-compact Semi Compact
Grain Colour Pearly white Red White,
Special feature Fertilizer responsive, moderate resistancetoearhead bug, shootflyand stem borer Dual purposered grain sorghum suited to rainfed tract of Salem,Namakkal districts. Toleranttodowny mildew and charcoal rot diseases Non lodging.

IV.NURSRY PRACTICES

NURSERY PREPARATION

For raising seedlings to plant one hectare, select 7.5 cents(300 m2) near a water source where water will not stagnate.

APPLICATION OF FYM TO THE NURSERY
  • Apply 750 kg od FYM or compost for 7.5 cents nursery and apply another 500 kg of compost or FYM for covering the seeds after sowing.
  • Spread the manure evenly on the unploughed soil and incorporate by ploughing or apply just before last ploughing.
LAYING THE NURSERY
  • Provide three separate units of size 2m x 1.5m with 30 cm space in between the plots and all around the unit for irrigation.
  • Excavate the soil from the interspace and all around to a depth of 15cm to form channels and spread the soil removed on the bed and level.
PRE -TREATMENT OF SEEDS
  • Treat the seeds prior to sowing with Trichoderma viride 4g/kg of seed.
  • Treat the seeds with 2% KH2PO4 for 6 hours and shade dry. Dissolve 20 g KH2PO4 in one litre of water for soaking 5 kg seeds.
  • Treat the seeds with three packets (600g)/ha of Azozpirillum using rice kanji as binder.
  • Harden the sees with 1% aquous fresh leaf extract of Prosopis juliflora and pungam (Pongamia pinnata) mixed in 1:1 for 16 hrs at 1:0:6 ratio (seed and solution) followed by drying and subsequently pelleting the seeds with Pungam leaf powder @ 300 g/kg with gruel.
  • Halogenise the seeds containing CaOCI, CACO3 and arappu leaf popwder @ 5:4:1 ratio or iodine based (containing 2 mg of iodine in 30 g of CaCO3) formulation @ 300 g/kg packed in polylined cloth bag to maintain seed viability for more than 10 months.
SOWING AND COVERING THE SEEDS
  • Make shallow rills, not deeper than 1 cm onthe bed by passing the fingers vertically over it.
  • Broadcast 7.5 kg of treated seeds evenly on the beds.
  • Cover by levelling the rills by passing the hand lightly over the soil.
  • Ensure that the seeds are not sown deep as germination will be affected.
WATER MANAGEMENT
  • Provide one inlet to each nursery unit.
  • Allow water to enter through the inlet and cover all the channels till the raised beds are wet and then cut off water.
  • adjust the frequency of irrigation according to the soil types as follows.
Number of irrigations Red soils Heavy soils
First irrigation immediately after sowing immediately after sowing
Second irrigation 3rd day after sowing 4th day after sowing
Third irrigation 7th day after sowing 9th dayafter sowing
Fourth irrigation 12th day after sowing 16th day after sowing
Fifth irrigation 17th day after sowing ..

NOTE:
Do not keep the seedlings in the nursery for more than 18 days. If older seedlings are used, establishment and yield are adversely affected. Do not allow cracks to develop in the nursery by properly adjusting the quantity of irrigation water.

V. MAIN FIELD PREPARATION FOR IRRIGATED CROP

PLOUGHING

Plough the field with aniron plough once and twice with a country plough. Sorghum does not require fine tilth since itadversely affects germination and yield inthe case of direct sown crop.

To overcome thesubsoil hard pan in Alfisols (deep red soils) chiselling the field at 0.5m intervals toa depth of 40 cm on both the directions of the field followed by disc ploughing once and cultivator ploughing twice help to increase the yield of Sorghum and the succeeding blackgram also. This was true with Sorghum followed by Groundnut also.

Applicationof FYM and 100% of recommended N can also be followed. In soilswith sub-soil hard pan, chiselling should be done every year at the start of the cropping sequence to create a favourable physical environment.

APPLICATION OF FYM

Spread 12.5 t/ha FYM or composted coir pith along with 2 kg of Azospirillum (10 pockets/ha) on the unploughed field and incorporate the manure in the soil by working a country plough. Apply well decomposed poultry manure @ 5 t/ha to improve the grain yield as well as physical properties of soils.

FORMATION OF RIDGES AND FURROWS
  • Form ridgesand furrows using a ridger 6 m long and 45 cm spart.
  • Form irrigation channels across the furrows.
  • Alternatively, form beds of size 10 m2 and 20 m2 depending on the availability of water.
APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS Transplanted crop:
  • Appl;y NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendations. If soil test recommendations are not available, adopt a blanket recommendation of 90 N, 45 P2O5, 45 K2O kg/ha.
  • Apply half the dose of N and full dose of P2O5 and K2O basally before planting.
  • Apply half the dose of N and full doseof P2O5 and K2O basally before planting.
  • In the case of ridge planted crop, open a furrow 5 cm deep onthe side of the ridge at two thirds the distance from the top of the ridge and the bottom and place the fertilizer mixture along the furrow and cover with soil upto 2 cm.
  • Soil application of Azospirillum at 10 packets (2kg/ha) after mixing with 25 kg of FYM + 25 kg of soil may be carried out before sowing/planting.
Direct sown crop
  • Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendations asfar as possible. If soil test recommendations are not available, adopt a blanket recommendation of 90 N, 45 P2O5, 45 K2O kg/ha.
  • Apply half the dose of N and full dose of P2O5 and K2O basally before sowing and if basal application is not possible the same could betop dressed within 24 hours.
  • In the case of bed planted crop, mark lines toa depth of 5 cm and 45 cm apart. Place the fertilizer mixture atthe depth of 5 cm along the lines. Cover the lines upto 2 cm from the top before sowing.
  • In the case of sorghum raised as a mixed crop with a pulse crop (Blackgram, Greengram or Cowpea) open furrows 30 cm apart to a depth of 5 cm.
  • Apply fertilizer mixture in the two lines in which sorghum is to be raised and cover upto 2 cm.
  • Skip the third row in which the pulse crop is to be raised and place fertilizer mixture in the next two rows and cover upto 2 cm with soil.
  • Application of bio-fertilizers: When Azozpirillum is used apply only 75% of recommended N for irrigated sorghum.
  • Soil test based fertilizer recommendation may be adopted in Western and North Western Zone in soils viz., Alfisol, Inceptisol and Vertisol for prescribing fertilizer doses for specified yield targets.

VI. MANAGEMENT OF MAIN FIELD

TRANSPLANTED CROP
  • Pull our the seedlings when they are 15to 18 days old.
  • Prepare slurry with 5 packets (1000 g/ha) of Azospirillum inoculant in 40 lit.of waterdip the root portion of the seedlings in the solution for 15-30 minutes and transplant.
  • Let in water through the furrows.
  • Plant one seedling per hill.
  • Plant the seedlings ata depth of 3 to 5 cm.
  • Plant the seedlings on the side of the ridge, half the distance from the top of the ridge and the bottom.
  • Maintain a spacing of 15 cm between plants in the row which are 45 cm apart (15 m2).
DIRECT SOWN CROP

Seed hardening ensures high germination. The seeds are pre-soacked in 2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution for6 hours in equal volume and then dried back to its original moisture content in shade and are used for sowing.

  • In the case of pure crop of sorghum, maintain the seed rate at 10 kg/ha.
  • In the case of inter crop of sorghum with pulse crop, maintain the seed rate of sorghum at 10 kg/ha and pulse crop at 10 kg/ha.
  • In the case of pure crop of sorghum, sow the seedswitha spacingof 15 cm between seeds in the rows which are 45 cm apart.
  • Maintain one plant per hill.
  • If shootfly attack is there, remove the sideshotsand retain one healthy shoot.
  • Sow the seeds over the lines where fertilizers are placed.
  • Sow the seeds at a depth of 2 cm and cover with soil.
  • In the case of sorghum intercropped with pulses sow one paired row of sorghum alternated with a single row of pulses. The spacing between therow of sorghum and pulse crop is 30 cm.

Forage cowpea CO.1 can be inter-cropped in sorghum at two rows of fodder cowpea between paired rows of sorghum.

WEED MANAGEMENT
  • Sorghum is slow growing in early stages and is adversely affected by weed competition. Therefore, keep the field free of weeds upto 45 days. For this, two hand weeding on 20-35 days after sowing may be given.
  • If pulse crop isto be raised as an inter-crop in sorghum the weedig may be reduced.
  • Hoe and hand weed on the 1th day of transplanting.Hoe and weed between 30-35 days after transplanting and between 35-40 days for a direct sown crop, if necessary.
APPLICATION OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS
Transplanted crop

Apply the balance 50% of N along the furrows on the 15thdayof planting and irrigate.

THINNING OF THE SEEDLINGS AND GAP FILLING
Direct sown crop

Thin the seedlings and gap fill with the seedlings thinned out. Maintain a spacing of 15 cm between plants afterthe first hand weeding on ther 23rd day of sowing. Thin the pulse crop toa spacing of 10 cm between plants for all pulse crop except cowpea, for which spacing is maintained at 20 cm between plants.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

Zinc: Deficiency symptoms first appear in the newly formed leaves at 20 to 30 days age. Older leaves have yellow streaks or chlorotic striping between veins.

Iron: Interveinal chlorosis will be observed. If the deficiency continues the entire leaf including the veins may exhibit chlorotic sysmptoms.Newly formed leaves exhibit chlorotic symptoms. The entire crop may exhibit bleached appearance, dry and may die.

Direct sown crop

  • Spray only if micronutrient mixture is not applied.
  • Apply in case of iron deficiency.
  • If soil is calcareous.
DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Rust: Spray Psudomonas sp.at 2gr./Lit of waterwhen the disease reaches grade 3. Repeat the spray application after 10 days.

Sugary disease
  • Sowing period to be adjusted so as to prevent heading during rainlyseason and severe winter.
  • Spray any oneof the following Biocide at emergencyof earhead (5-10% flowering stage) followed by a spray at 50% flowering and repeat the spray after a week if necessary. Psudomonas sp. at 2gr./Lit of water.

Downy mildew: Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride 4g/kg of seed. Rogue infected plants upto 45 days after sowing and spray Psudomonas sp. 2gr./Lit of water with 4 gr. of Trichoderma viride after noticing the symptoms of foliar diseases, for both transplanted and direct sown crops.

Charcoal Rot Treat the seeds of Cholam with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seed.

PEST MANAGEMENT
  • Take up early sowing of sorghum immediately after the receipt of South West or North East monsoon to minimise the shootfly incidence.
  • Use seeds pelleted with insecticide.
  • In case of direct seeding, use increased seed rate upto 12.5 kg per hectare and remove the shootfly damaged seedlings at the time of thinning or raise nursery and transplant only healthy seedlings.
  • Plough son after harvest, remove and destry the stubbles.
  • Set up the TNAU low cost fish meal trap @ 12/ha till the crop is 30 days old. Arpocarb Fishmeal formulation is more effective in attracting the shootfly adults especially the females.
    Preparation of Arpocarb fishmeal formulation for shootfly attraction: Fishmeal powder is to be sprayed first with 2.0 per cent starch dissolved in hot water as a sticking agent. The insecticide Arpocarb should then be sprayed 50 ml/kg of fishmeal powder. The resultant mixture is shade dried and can be used at 50g/trap. The formulated product should be moistened well before placing in the trap. The formulation can be changed once in 10-14 days depending upon the smelll.
  • The sowingof sorghum should be completed in as short a time as possible to avoid continuous flowering whioch favours grain midge and earhead bug multiplication in an area.
  • Sowing the lab lab or cowpea as an intercrop to minimise stemborer damage (Sorghum Lab Lab 4:1).
  • Setting up of light traps till mid night to monitor, attract and kill adults of stem borer, grain midge and earhead caterpillars.
  • Setting up sex pheromone traps at 12/ha to attract male moths of Helicoverpa sp. from flowering to grain hardening. Two applications of NPV at 10 days interval at 250 LE/ha al;ong with crude sugar 2.5 kg + cotton Seed Kernel powder 250 g on the earheads is effective in reducing the larval population of Helicoverpa.
  • Apply Botanical pesticides when the pest population reach the ET levels viz. Shootfly one egg per plant in 10% of the plant population in the first two weeks of sowing or 10% dead hearts. Stemborer caterpillar 2 per earhead, mites 5 per sq.cm.

a. Shootfly: In nursery, apply neem cake at 2kg/cent.Spray neem kmernal extract 5%..

b. Seed-borne disease and shootfly control: Combined application of Traichoderma viride 4gr.+Psudomonas sp. 2gr./Kg of seed. will take care of seed born diseases.

c. Stemborer: Mix 40kg. powdered neem cake with sand to make up a total quantity of 50 kg/ha and apply in the leaf whorls. Spray neem kernal extract 5% .

d. Grain midge, earhead bug, earhead caterpillar:Dust with neem cake powder with ash on 3rd and 8 thday after panicle emergence.For earhead bug and sugary disease apply the same as above and spray Psudomonos sp. at 2gr./lit.of water.at 10% heading and after 9days.

e. Mites: Spray Garlic solution 2% at the uder surphase of the leaf.ETL for Sorghum mite = 5 mites/cm2 of leaf area.

f. Storage Pests: Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) treat the seeds with Botanical pesticides like neem oil or treate with Nochi leaf, neem leaf.

The pesticides cause phytotoxicity to sorghum crop.

VII. WATER MANAGEMENT

Regulate irrigation according to the following growth phase of the crop.

  Transplanted crop Direct sown crop
Growth phase 1 to 40 days 1 to 33 days
Flowering phase 41 to 70 days 34 to 65 days
Maturity phase 71 to 95 days 66 to 95 days

 

STAGES No.of irrigation Date of transplanting/sowing of crop
Transplanted Direct sown
Light soils      
i.Irrigate for germination or establishment 1 1st day 1st day
  2 4th day 4th day
ii.Regulate irrigation during vegetative phase 1 15th day 15th day
  2 28th day 28th day
iii.Flowering phase (copious irrigation) 1 40th day 40th day
  2 52nd day 52nd day
  3 64th day 64th day
iv.Maturity phase (control irrigation) 1 65th day 76th day
  2 88th day 88th day
v.Stop irrigation thereafter .. .. ..
Heavy soils      
i.Irrigate for germination or establishment 1 1st day 1st day
  2 4th day 4th day
ii.Regulate irrigation during vegetative phase 1 17th day 17th day
  2 30th day 30th day
iii.Flowering phase (copious irrigation) 1 40th day 45th day
  2 52nd day 60th day
  3 75th day 75th day
iv.Maturity phase(control irrigation) 1 72nd day 90th day
v.Stop irrigationthereafter      

NOTE:
Adjust irrigation schedule according to the weather conditions and depending upon the receipt of rains.

Contingent Plan:
Spraying 3% Kaolin (30 g in one litre of water) during periods of stress will mitigate the ill effects.

VII. HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

  • Consider the average duration of the crop and observe the crop. When the crop matures the leavesturn yellow and presenta dried up appearance.
  • The grains are hard and firm.
  • At this stage, harves the crop by cuttingthe earheads separately.
  • Cut the straw after a week, allow it to dry and then stack.
  • In the case of tall varieties, cutthe stem at 10 to 15 cm above ground level and afterwards separate the earheads and stack the straw.
  • Dry the earheads.
  • Thresh using a mechanical thresher or by drawing a stone roller over the earheads or by using cattle and dry the produce and store.

RATOON SORGHUM CROP

VARIETIES FOR RATOONING

CO.25, CO 26, Hybrid CSH 5, K Tall

RATOONING TECHNIQUE
  • Harvest the main crop leaving 15 cm stubbles.
  • Remove the first formed two sprouts from the main crop and allow only the later formed two sprouts to grow. Allow two tillers per hill.
HOEING AND WEEDING
  • Remove the weeds immediately after harvest of the main crop..
  • Hoe and wed twice on 15th and 30th day after cutting.
APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS
  • Apply 100 kg N/ha in two split doses.
  • Apply the first dose on 15th day after cutting andthe second on 45th day after cutting.
  • Apply 50 kg. P2O5/ha along with first application of N.
PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT
  • Since the ratoon crop invites pests and diseases in early stages, plant protection measures have to be resorted to. Spray any Botanical pesticides immediately after application of fertilizer before irrigation.
  • Follolw the plant protection measures as recommended for the control of stemborer, earhead midgeand earhead bug for the main crop.
WATER MANAGEMENT
  • Irrigate immediately after cutting the main crop.
  • Irrigation should not be delayed for more than 24 hours after cutting.
  • Irrigate on 3rd or 4th day after cutting.
  • Subsequently irrigate once in 7-10 days.
  • Stop irrigation on 70-80 days after ratooning.
HARVEST

Harvest the crop when the grains turn yellow.

NOTE: The duration of the ratoon crop is about 15days less than the main crop.

RAINFED SORGHUM

Average and well distributed rainfall of 250-300 mm is optimum for rainfed sorghum.l

DISTRIBUTION

Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Ramanathapuram, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi, Virudhunagar, Sivagangai, Trichy, Erode, Salem, Namakkal, Coimbatore and Dharmapuri districts.

SEASON

The crop canbe grown in South West and North East monsoon seasons.

FIELD PREPARATION

Test the soil and apply fertilizers based on soil test recommendations.

  • Field has to be prepared well in advance taking advantage of early showers. FYM application should be done at 12.5 t/ha and well incorporated at the time of ploughing.
  • Chiseling for soils with hard pan.Chisel the soils having hard panformation at shallow depths with chisel plough at 0.5 M interval, first in one directionand then inthe direction perpendicular to the previous one once in three years. Apply 12.5 t FYM or composted Coir pith/ha besides chiselling to get an additional yield of about 30% over control.
  • To conserve the soil moisture sow the seeds in flat and form furrows between crop rows during inter cultivation or during third week after sowing.

VARIETIES

CO 21, CO 26, CO 25, K Tall, COH 3 , K5, K8

SEED RATE

15 kg/ha

SEED TREATMENT

  • Soak the seeds in 2% (20g in one litre of water)potassium dihydrogen phosphate or 500 ppm of CCC (1 ml in one litre of water) for six hours and shade dry the seeds for 5 hours. Use 350 ml of solution for soaking one kg of seed.
  • Treat the seeds with three packets of Azozpirillum (6-00 g) and 3 packets of Phosphobacterium. In the main field, apply Azospirillum 2kg (10 pockets/ha) with Phosphobateria 2 kg FYM + 25 kg soil.

SOWING

Sow the seeds well before onset of monsoon at 5 cm depth (by seed drillor by country plough). Pre-monsoon sowing

Sow the hardened seeds at 5 cm depth with Seed cum fertilizer drill to ensure uniform depth of sowing and fertilizer application before the onset of monsson as detailed below:

District Optimum period/td>
1. Coimbatore 37-38th week (II to III week of September)
2.Erode 38th week (III week of September)
3.Sivaganga 40th week (I week of October)
4.Ramanathapuram 40th week (I week of October)
5.Thoothukudi 39-40th week (Last week of September to I wseek of October)
6.Vellore, Tiruvannamalai 37th-38th week (Stptember II week to September III week)
  • Sow the sorghum seeds over the line where the fertilizers are placed.
  • Sow theseeds at a depth of 5 cm and cover wwith the soil.
  • Sow the seeds with thespackings of 15 cm in the paired rows around 60 cm apart.
  • Sow the pulse seeds to fall 10 cm apart in the furrows between the paired rows of surghum.

SPACING

45 x 15 cm or 45 x 10 cm.

FERTILIZER

Apply 12.5 t/ha. of Composted Coir pith + NPK at 40:20:0; enriched FYM 750 kg/ha. The recommended dose of 40 kg N and 20 Kg P2O5/ha for rainfed sorghum can be halved if FYM @ 5 t/ha is applied.

WEED MANAGEMENT

Keep sorghum field free of weeds from second week after germination till 5th wek. Hand weeding is the best for weed control as the chemical weedicide suppresses the crop growth.The inter croping with pulses also suppresses the weed growth.

CROPPING SYSTEM

  • The most profitable and remunerative sorghum, based cropping system, adopted in intercropping sorghum, with cowpea, redgram, lab-lab, blackgram.
  • In rainfed Vertisol, adopt paired row planting in sorghum and sow one row of blackgram/Cowpea in between paired rows of sorghum to have 100% population of sorghum plus 33% population of blackgram/cowpea.
  • Intercropping of sunflower CO 1, with the main crop of sorghum CO 26 in 4:2 ratio isrecommended under rainfed conditions during North-East monsoon for black soils of Coimbatore.
  • Intercropping ofsoyabean with sorghum in the ratio 4:2 is recommended or khariff and summer seasons.
  • Sorghum - blackgram intercropping system, as well as sold cropping, application of 20 kg N and 20 kg P2O5/ha. through enriched FYM and treating the seeds with Azospirillum is recommeded for Aruppukottai region.
  • For sorghum (CO 25) + Fodder cowpea (CO 1)intercropping system, application of 20 kg N and 20 kg P2O5/ha with enriched FYM is recommended for Coimbatore region.
  • The intercroping system, fodder sorghum (K7) + Fodder cowpea (CO 5) at 3.2 ratio is found profitable for rainfed Vertisols of Aruppukottai.
  • Tamarind and Neem trees upto 3-4 years from date of planting form an ideal tree component for agroforestry in black cotton soils of Kovilpatti, Sorghum and blackgram given higher yield even at 50 per cent of the recommended level of fertilizer application.

Hybrid Sorghum(Sorghum biccolor)

HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION

SEASON

October-December for hybrid. June-July and October-November for varieties.

SOWING

To achieve synchronised flowering of the parental lines and quick disposal of the produce, sowingthe parental lines from 15th November to 15th January is most advantageous. The flowering period should coincide with cool and low temperature for proper seed set. Under Coimbatore conditions for CSH 5 the female parent (MS 2077A) must be sown 10-15 days earlier to the male (CS 3541), for K tall MS 2219-A must be sown 3-5 days later to IS 3541 and for CSH 6 the female parent (MS 2077A) must be sown 10-15 daya earlier to the male (CS 3541), for K tall MS 2219-A must be sown 3-5 days later to IS 3541 and for CSH 6 the female parent MS 2219-A can be sown simultaneously, with CS 3541 and for CSH 9 the female parent MS 206 A must be sown 7-10 days earlier than male CS 3541 in November-December season.

Presowing hardening: Soak the graded seeds with 2% Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) for 10 hrs. and dry back to original moisture content. The same may be further seed treated before sowing.

PLANTED RATIO

4:2 at F.S. and 5:2 at C.S. Spacing: 45 x 10 cm

FERTILIZERS

100:50:50 kg NPK/ha, 50:50:50 as basal, 25:0:0 top dressing after weeding; 25:0:0 kg at boot leaf stage (i.e 45th day of sowing

TO ACHIEVE SYNCHRONISATION
  • Spraying growth retardant Maleic hydrazide 500 ppm at 45th day after sowing delays flowering in advancing parent.
  • N in the form of urea 1% can be sprayed to the logging parent.
  • With-hold one irrigation in advancing parent.
  • Take up staggered sowing.
  • Spraying CCC 300 ppm will delay flowering.
Pre-harvest sanitation spray

Spraying of Carbendazim or Carboxin for black mould attacked or rain soaked earheads.

PHYSIOLOGICAL MATURITY

Attains physiological maturity 40-45 days after half-bloom stage when seed moisture content would be 30 per cent.

HARVEST

Harvest the male rows first and then the female

THRESHING

At a seed moisture content of 15-18 per cent.

SIEVE SIZE

9/64" round perforated sieve.

STORAGE

Dry the seeds to safe moisture content of 7 per cent. Treat with Neem leaf or nochi leaf and pack it in cloth bag for short term and in 700 gauge polythene bag for long term storage.

MILD STORAGE CORRECTION

Oilseeds with declioning viability maybe upgraded and soaked for 6 hrs in double the volume of Disodium hydrogen phosphate (3.59 g/100 l water) and quickly dried back to 8% moisture content.

Finger Millet

I. SEASONS AND VARIETIES

DISTRICTS/SEASON VARIETIES
Irrigated  
i.Marghazhipattam (December-January)  
Kancheepuram,Tiruvallur,Vellore & Tiruvannamalai CO 11, CO7, CO 18
Cuddalore, Villupuram VCO7, CO 11, CO 12, CO.13
Thanjavur,Tiruvarur,Nagapattinam CO 11, TRY1, CO 13
Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur,Karur,Pudukottai CO 11, CO 7, TRY 1
Madurai,Dindigul,Theni, Tirunelveli,Thoothukudi CO 11, CO 7, K7
Sivaganga, ,Thoothukudi CO 11, K5, K7
Salem,Namakkal,Dharmapuri CO 11, CO 7, CO 12, CO 13
Erode, Coimbatore CO 11, CO 12, CO 7, CO 13
ii.Chithiraipattam (April-May)  
Kancheepuram,Tiruvallur, Vellore CO 11, K7
Tiruvannamalai, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur,, Karur,Pudukottai,Tirunelveli, Cuddalore, Villupuram CO 11, CO 12, K7, CO 13
Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam CO 11
Thoothukudi, Sivaganga, Virudhunagar CO 11, K5,K7
Salem,Namakkal, Dharmapuri CO 11, CO 7, CO 12, CO 13
Coimbatore, Erode CO 11, CO 7, CO 12, CO 13
Rainfed  
i.Adipattam (June-July)  
All districts except Kanyakumari and The Nilgiris CO 11, CO 7,CO 12, Paiyur-1
Kancheepuram, Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamali, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore, Erode INDAF 5
Kancheepuram,.Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Salem, Namakkal, Pudukottai, Thoothukudi, Virudhunagar, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore, Erode, Sivaganga K7
ii.Puratasipattam(September-October)  
Kancheepuram,Tiruvallur, Vellore, Torivannamalai CO 11
Cuddalore, Villupuram CO 11, CO 12
Thanjavur,Tiruvarur. Nagapattinam CO 11
Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur,Karur,Madurai,Dindigul,Theni CO 11, CO 7, K7
Pudukottai CO11, CO 7
Ramnad, Sivaganga,Virudhunagar CO 11. K5, K7
Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi CO11, K7
Salem,Namakkal,Dharmapuri CO 11,CO 7, Paiyur 1, CO 12
Coimbatore,Erode CO 11, CO 7, CO 12, CO 13,INDAF 5

II. PARTICULARS OF RAGI STRAINS

Particulars CO12 Paiyur1 K5 TRY1 INDAF5
Parentage Selection from variety PR722 Pureline Saradax EC 158 Selection from HR374 Cauvery xIE929
Duration(days) 110-120 115-120 105 102 105-110
Season          
Rainfed/Irrigated Both(Northern districts) Rainfed Both Khariff irrigated Sodic/Saline soils Adipattam /Both
Grain yield kg/ha          
Irrigated 4750 .. 1800 4011 4000
Rainfed 3250 3125 1100 .. 2500
Straw yield kg/ha          
Irrigated 8750 .. 3000 6800 7500
Rainfed 6250 5750 2000 .. 5200
Stem Erect Erect Erect Erect Erect
Height(cm) 90-120 110 100-120 .. 85-95
Tillers 5-7 6-8 8-9 5-8 6-8
Days to 50% flowering 70-75 80 70 78 70-75
Ear size and shape Incurved to fisty Open Incurved Incurved Open, Incurved
Fingers 5-7 6-8 7-9 5-8 6-8
Ear length(cm) 8 8 7-8 7.6 7.5
Grain colour Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown
1000grain wt(g) 2.8 2.7 2.57 2.74 2.0
Particulars INDAF5 CO7 CO11 K7 CO13
Parentage Cauvery xIE929 Pureline Pureline CO8xK2 CO7xTAH
Duration(days) 105-110 100 90-95 95-100 95-100
Season          
Rainfed/Irrigated Adipattam /Both Irrigated Irrigated Both Both
Grain yield kg/ha          
Irrigated 4000 4500 4750 .. 3600
Rainfed 2500 2750 3250 3130 2300
Straw yield kg/ha          
Irrigated 7500 7500 8750 .. 10000
Rainfed 5200 5000 6250 5750 7500
Stem Erect Erect Erect Erect ..
Height(cm) 85-95 100-120 90-120 110 85-90
Tillers 6-8 5-6 5-7 1-3 3-5
Days to 50% flowering 70-75 70-75 80 55-60 55-60
Ear size and shape Open, Incurved Incurved Incurved to fisty Open Open
Fingers 6-8 7-9 5-7 6-8 10-17
Ear length(cm) 7.5 7-8 11 8 ..
Grain colour Brown Brown Brown Brown Light Brown
1000grain wt(g) 2.0 2.57 2.8 2.7 1.7

III. PREPARATION OF NURSERY (IRRIGATED TRANSPLANTED CROPS)

1. PREPARATION OF LAND
  • For raising seedlings to plant one ha of mainfield,select 12.5 cents (500m2) of nursery area near a water source, where water does not stagnate.
  • Mix 37.5 kg of super phosphate with 500Kg of FYM or compost and spread the mixture evenly on the nursery area.
  • Plough twoorthree times witha mould board plough orfive times with a country plough.
2. FORMING RAISED BED
  • Mark units of 6 plots each of size 3m x 1.5 m. Provide 30 cm space between plots for irrigation.
  • Excavate the soil from the interspace and all around to a depth of 15 cm to form channels and spread the soil removed from the channels on the bed and level.
3.PRE-TREATMENT OF THE SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES
  • Mix the seeds ina polythene bag to ensure a uniform coating of seeds with Psudomonas sp. 2gr./kg of seeds.
  • Seed treatment with Azospirillum may be done @ 3 packets/ha (600g/ha).
4.SOWING AND COVERING THE SEEDS
  • Make shallow rills not deeper than one cmonthe beds by passing the fingers vertically over them.
  • Broadcast 5 kg of treated seeds evenly on the beds.
  • Cover the seeds by levelling out the hand lightly over the soil.
  • Sprinkle 500 kg of powdered FYM over the beds evenly to cover the seeds which are exposed and compact the surface lightly.
NOTE: Do not sow the seeds deep as germination will be adversely affected.
5.WATER MANAGEMENT
  • Provide one inlet to each nursery unit.
  • Allow water to enter through the inlet and cover all the channels around the beds. Allow the water in the channels to raise till the raised beds are wet anb then cut off water.
  • Adjust the frequency of irrigation according to the soil type.
No.of irrigations RED SOILS HEAVY SOILS
1st Immediately after sowing Immediately after sowing
2nd 3rd day after sowing 4th day after sowing
3rd 7th day after sowing 9th day after sowing
4th 12th day after sowing 16th day after sowing
5th 17th day after sowing ..

NOTE:
1.One irrigation is given onthe 3rd day in the case of red soil to soften the hard crust formed on the soil surface and also to facilitate seedlings to emerge out.
2. Do not allow cracks to develop in the nursery bed by properly adjusting the quantity of irrigation water.

7.PROTECTION OF THE SEEDLINGS IN THE NURSERY FROM PESTS AND DISEASES

i. Spray neem kernal extract 5% to the Nursery. Repet the same if needed.Spray Psudomonas sp. at 2gr./lit of water.

8.PULLING OUT THE SEEDLINGS FOR PLANTING

Pull out seedlings on the 17th to 20th day of sowing for planting.

IV. PREPARATION OF MAIN FIELD

PLOUGHING THE FIELD

Plough twice with mould board plough or thrice with wooden plough till a good tilth is obtained.

APPLICATION OF FYM OR COMPOST

Spread 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compost or composted coir pith evenly onthe unploughed field and then plough and incorporate in the soil.

NOTE: Do not spread and leave the manure uncovered in the field as nutrients will be lost.

APPLICATION OF FETILIZERS
  • Soil test based fertilizer recommendations may be adopted in Western and North Western Zones in soils of Vertisols, Alfisols, Inceptisols and Entisols for prescribing the fertilizer doses for specified yield targets. In soils having high intensive cropping system viz., Ragi-Maize-Cowpea, having high soil available K (310 kg/ha) potassium need not be applied. Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendation as far as possible. If soil test recommendation is noa vailable, adopt a blanket recommendationof 60 kg N, 30 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K2O per ha.
  • Apply half the dose of N and full dose of N and full dose of P2O5 basally before planting.
  • Broadcast the fertilizer mixture over the field before the last ploughing and incorporate into the soil by working a country plough.
  • Apply 10 packets/ha (2000g) of Azospirillum inoculant after mixing with 25 kg of soil and 25 kg of FYM before trnasplanting.
FORMING BEDS AND CHANNELS
  • Form beds of size 10 m2 to 20 m2 according to topography of the field.
  • Provide suitable irrigationchannels.
APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENT MIXTURE
  • Mix 12.5 kg. of micronutrient mixture formulated by the Department of Agriculture, Tamilnadu with enough sand to make a total quality of 50 kg/ha.
  • Applythe mixture evenlyon the beds.
  • Do not incorporate the mixture in the soil.

V. MANAGEMENT OF MAIN FIELD

TRANSPLANTING THE SEEDLINGS
  • Let water into the bed,level the bed, if itis notlevelled.
  • Plant 2 seedlings per hill.
  • Plant the seedlings at a depth of 3 cm.
  • Plant 18 to 20 days old seedlings.
  • Adopt a spacing of 15x15 cm for planting.
  • Root dipping with Azospirillum: Prepare slurry with 5 packets (1000g)/ha of Azospirillum inoculant in 40 litres of water and dip theroot portion of the seedlings in the solution for 15-30 minutes and transplant.
WEED MANAGEMENT

Hand weed twiceon 10th and 20th dayafter transplasnting.

PEST MANAGEMENT
  • Spray any one of the following Botanicals per ha for the control of leaf hopper, aphids and stemborer. Neem kernal extract 5%.
  • Apply the neem cake powder mixed with ash at milky stage to check earhead bug and earhead caterpillar.
HOEING AND HAND WEEDING
  • Hoe and hand weed on the 15th day of planting in light soils and 17th day of planting in heavy soils and subsequently on 30th and 32nd days, respectively.
  • Allow the weeds to dry for 2 or 3 days after hand weeding before giving irrigation.

NOTE: Do not adopt hoeingand hand weeding if herbicide is applied.

DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Blast: Spray Psudomonas sp. at 2gr./lit of water First spray immediately and after noticing the symptoms. Second and third sprays at flowering stage at 15 days interval to control neck and finger infection of blast disease of necessary. Treat the seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens and spray the extracts of Prosopis Juliflora leaf extract (10%) Ipomoea carnea leaf extract (10%) to reduce the incidence of blast.
Foliar spray with Aureofungin sol (100 ppm) at 50% earhead emergence followed by a second spray of Psudomonas sp. at 2gr./lit of water10 days later to reduce neck and finger blast.
Mosaic streak and mottle streak viruses:
Rogue out the affected plants

VI. WATER MANAGEMENT

Regulate irrigation according tothe following growth phases of the crop.

Stages No.of irrigations Crop duration
80 days 100 days 120 days
Vegetative Phase(Nursery)   1 to 16 1 to 18 1 to 20
Vegetative phase (in main field)   1 to 18 1 to 20 1 to 22
Flowering phase   19 to 40 21 to 55 23 to 69
Maturity phase   Beyond 40 days Beyond 55days Beyond 69 days
Heavy soils        
Establishment(1-7 days) 1 1st day 1st day 1st day
  2 5th day 5th day 5th day
Vegetative phase (8 to 20 days) 1 18th day 20th day 20thday
  2 31st day 33rd day 30th day
Flowering phase (21 to 55 days) 1 41st day 42nd day 37thday
  2 51st day 52nd day 44th day
  3 .. .. 63rd day
Maturity phase(56 - 120 days) 1 161st day 62nd day 78th day
  2 .. .. 93rd day
Stop irrigation thereafter
Light soils        
Establishment (1 - 7 days) 1 1st day 1st day 1st day
  2 5th day 5thday 5th day
Vegetative phase (8 - 20 days) 1 15th day 16th day 16th day
  2 26th day 28th day 28th day
Flowering phase (21-55 days) 1 36thday 36th day 36th day
  2 45thday 45th day 45th day
  3 .. 54th day 54 th day
Maturity phase (56 - 120 days) 1 58th day 69th day 78thday
  2 70th day .. 93rd day
Stop irrigation thereafter
NOTE: The irrigation schedule is given only as a general guideline. Regulate irrigation depending uponthe prevailing weather conditions and receipt of rain

VII. HARVESTING

DECIDE WHEN TO HARVEST
  • Ragi crop does no tmature uniformly and hence the harvest is to be taken up in two stages.
  • When the earhead on the main shoot and 50% of the earheads on the crop turn brown, the crop is ready for the first harvest.
First Harvest
  • Cut al earheads which have turned brown.
  • Dry, thresh and clean the grains by winnowing.
Second Harvest
  • Seven days after the first harvest, cut al lthe earheads including the green ones.
  • Cure the grains to obtain maturity by heaping the harvested earheads in shade for one day without drying, so that the humidity and temperature increase and the grains get cured.
  • Dry, thresh and clean the grains by winnowing and store the grains in gunnies.
Protection from storage pests
  • Grain purpose: Dry the seeds adequately to reduce the moisture level to 10% .
  • Seed purpose: Admix one kg of Activated kaolin for every 100 kg of seed. Pack in gunny or polythene lined gunny bags for storage.
Special propblems
  • Root Aphids: The neem cake extract 5% may be drenched at the rhizosphere of the infested and surrounding plants.
  • Rainfed ragi: Azospirillum mixed with FYM and applied to field saves the cost of nitrogen by 50% with a comparable yield obtained with 40 kg N/ha.
  • Management of aged seedlings of ragi under rainfed conditions: When planting ragi seedlings beyond 21 days, increase the number of seedlings to 3/hill and increase N level by 25% to minimise yield loss.
  • Apply VAM culture (Glomus fasciculatum) at 100 g/m2 in the nursery and also treat with Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium as seed treatment, seedling dip and field application to reduce the reniform nematode population in ragi.

VIII. SEED TECHNOLOGY

SELECTION OF SEED

Slurry treat the graded seed with Carbendazim at 2 g or Thiram 75% WDP at 4 g in 5 ml water per of seed.

NURSERY SOWING

Sow in rill not deeper than 1 cm in raised bed and sprinkle with 200kg of powdered FYm. Level and compact the surface lightly.

SPACING, MANURES, Etc. RECOMMENDED PACKAGES

Harvesting : First harvest when 505 of the earheads onthe crop turn brown. The second harvest a week to 10 days later when all the remaining earheads turn brown (Spikelets are non-shattering).

POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY
  • Threshing Green earheads if harvested will contaminate the seeds with immature seeds and interfere cleaning, drying and grading. Dry earheads until seed moisture content is 15% and separate manually by threshing with pliable bamboo stick or machine thresher.
  • Precleaning and drying Threshed seeds shouldbe precleaned before sundrying, seeds must be dried to 12% before grading.
  • Grading (Bold seeds retained by BSS 12x12 will be between 70 and 77%)
    a. BSS 10 x 10 (aperture width 2.4 mm) as scalper.
    b. BSS 12 x 12 (aperture width 2.0 mm) as grader for CO7, CO 10, CO 11 and PR 202 processing loss will be 10 to 15%.
  • Seed treatment a. As above in the selection of seed
    b. Pre-sowing hardening: Soak seeds in 0.5% Ca C12 at 1:1 ratio until visible e xpression of embryonic growth. Air dry to original moisture content.
  • Storage, package, labeling Seed retains viability and vigour bettern than any other cerealcrop with marginal storage facilities in hot humid areas. On less humid places use fresh gada cloth for short term storage. For long term storage, in humid places 700 gauge polythene bag may be used.

Small Millets

1. SEASON AND VARIETIES
Crop Districts grown
Tenai Dharmapuri,Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore,Villupuram, Salem,
Namakkal Erode, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli,Perambalur,Karur,
Madurai, Dindigul, Theni,Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi
Samai Dharmapuri,Vellore,Tiruvannamalai,Erode,Salem,Namakkal, Coimbatore,Madurai,Dindigul, Theni,Tirunelveliand Thoothukudi
varagu Vellore, Tiruvannamalai,Kancheepuram,Tiruvallur, Dharmapuri, Salem, Namakkal, Cuddalore, Villupuram,Tiruchirapalli,Perambalur Karur,Thanjavur,Tiruvarur,Nagapattinam,Madurai,Dindigul,Theni and Ramanathapuram
Panivaragu Velore, Tiruvannamalai, Salem,Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi
Kudiraivali Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri,Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli,Perambalur, Karur, Pudukottai,Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Ramanathapuram, Tirunelveli & Thoothukudi


Particulars Variety Duration(Days)
1.TENAI
Rainfed
a)June-July(Hill slopes of Coimbatore and Erode Districts CO5 90
K3 82
CO6 85-90
b) September-October (Coimbatore and Southern districts) CO4 65
CO 5 90
CO6 85-90
Irrigated
a) February-March K2 80
b) September-October CO5 90
CO 6 85-90
2.SAMAI
a) June-July (Hill slopes of Coimbatore and Erode Districts CO2 55
CO3 80-95
b)July-August (Dharmapuri Paiyur 1 105
CO 3 80-85
c) September-October K1 100
CO3 80-85
CO 3 for all Samai growing areas of Tamilnadu
3.VARAGU
Rainfed
a)June-July K1 100
b)July-August CO 3 120
APK 1 100
Vamban 1 95-100
4.PANIVARAGU
Rainfed
a)September-October K1 70
CO2 80
CO3 80
C4 75
K2 75
Irrigated
a)February-March K1 60
5.KUDIRAIVALI
Rainfed
a)September-October CO1 105
Irrigated
a)February-March CO 1 105


Package of practices for Tenai
Varieties CO4, K2 and K3Plant protection  
Duration CO4 65 days
  CO5 90 days
  K2 80 days
  K3 82 days
Season Rainfed  
  June-July (Hill slipes of Coimbatore and Erode Districts) CO5,K3
  Irrigated  
  February-March K2
  September-October CO 5
Seeds and Sowing For line planting 10 kg/h
  For sowing 12.5 kg/ha
  Use of Gorru or seed drill is recommended
Seed treatment Treat 1 kg of seeds with 2 g Thiram or Carbendazim  
Field preparation Plough the field thoroughly using a small iron plough or country plough to fine tilth  
Fertilizer application Apply basally FYM/Compost 12.5 t/ha
  Nitrogen 44 kg/ha
  Phosphorus 22 kg/ha
Spacing For line planting 22 x 10 cm, for sowing 10 cm in between plants  
Weeding First weeding is done on the 15th DAS and the second weeding on 40th DAS  
Thinning Thinning is done soon after weeding or before 20 DAS  
Plant protection Generally no major problem of pests and diseases  
Package of practices for Samai
Varieties CO 2, Paiyur 1,K1, CO 3  
Duration CO 3 55 days
  Paiyur 1 105 days
  K1 100 days
  CO 3 80-85 days
Season June-July (Hill slops of Coimbatore and Erode districts) CO2, CO 3
  July-August (Dharmapuri) Paiyur 1, CO 3
  September-October (Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi) K1, CO3
Seeds and Sowing For line planting 10 kg/ha
  For sowing 12.5 kg/ha
  Use ofGorru and seed drill is recommended
Seed Treatment Treat 1 kg of seeds with 2 g Thiram or Carbendazim  
Field preparation Plough the field thoroughly 2 or 3times using a small iron plough or country plough to fine tilth  
Fertilizer application Apply basally  
  FYM/Compost 12.5 t/ha
  Nitrogen 44 kg/ha
  Phosphorus 22 kg/ha
Spacing For line planting 25 x 10 cm for sowing 10 cm in between plants  
Weeding First weeding is done on the 15th DAS and the second weeding on 40th DAS  
Thinning Thinning isdone soonafter weeding or before 20 DAS  
Plant protection Usually no major problem of pests and diseases  
Package of practices for Varagu
Varieties K1, CO 3, APK 1  
Duration K1 100 days
  CO 3 120 days
  APK 1 100 days
Season Rainfed  
  June-July K1
  July-August CO 3
  September-January APK 1
Seeds and sowing For line planting 10 kg/ha; For sowing 12.5 kg/ha  
  Use of Gorru or seed drill is recommended
Seed treatment Treatr 1 kg of seeds with 2 g Thiramor Carbendazim  
Field preparation Plough the field thoroughly using a small iron plough or country plough to fine tilth  
Fertilizer application Apply basally FYM/Compost 12.5t/ha
  Nitrogen 44 kg/ha
  Phosphorus 22 kg/ha
Spacing For line planting 45 x10 cm for sowing 10 cm in between plants  
Weeding First weeding is done on the 15th DAS and the second weeding on 40th DAS  
Thinning Thinning is done soon after weeding or before 20 DAS  
Plant protection Generally no major problem of pests and diseases  

SMALL MILLETS - MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION

PARTICULARS Kudiraivali CO1 Kudiraivali K2 Tenai CO 4 Tenai CO 5
Parentage Pureline selectionfrom Coimbatore local Single plant selection from local Selection from Gujarat local Hybrid derivative of CO1 x A113/2
Duration (days) 75 90 65-70 90-95
Pigmentation Green Green Base purple Green throughout
Tillering ability High Profuse High Moderate to High
Panicles Loose density subsent Compact-Secondarybranches incurved Small profuselybristled Bold. profuselybristled with blunt tip
Grain character Yellow Dull white Buff Yellow seeds
Grain Yield (kg/ha)        
Rainfed 1750 1250 600 1200
Special features No major diseases noted Non-lodging and drought tolerant Specially suited to mixed and multiple cropping Rust resistant
PARTICULARS Tenai K2 Tenai K3 CO 6 Tenai  
Parentage Reselection fromJapanese type Selection from SIaA2567 Hybrid derivative of CO 5 x Ise 301  
Duration (days) 80 82 85-90  
Pigmentation Green Green ..  
Tillering Ability Moderate Moderate High  
Panicles Compact and nonsheeding Long cylindrical panicle Long and drooping  
Grain character Pink Yellow Bold & Yellow  
Yield kg/ha Rainfed 1700 Irrigated 3800 1620 Rainfed 1565 Straw 3.7 t/ha  
Special features Tolerant to pest and diseases under field conditions Non-lodging, tolerant to drought, major pests and diseases Suitable for irrigated and rainfed conditions, goiod grain quality rich in protein, fat and minerals than CO 5  
PARTICULARS Samai K1 Samai CO 2 Samai Paiyur1 Samai CO 3
Parentage Reselection from PM 368 Selection Ananthapur Pureline Selection from germplasm bank
Duration(days) 90 80-85 105-110 80-85
Pigmentation Green Green .. ..
Tillering ability Moderage Moderate Moderate High
Panicles Loose,Open Well branched open and loose Semi compact, Long ..
Grain character Buff colour Brown & small Brown Brown
Grain yield (kg/ha) Rainfed 1300 700 870 1066
Special features .. .. .. Bold grain Nonlodging suits for early & late sowing
PARTICULARS Varagu K1 Varagu CO3 Varagu APK1 Vamban 1 Varagu
Parentage Reselection from IPM 600 Selection from Georgia var. Selection from Pune varagu culture PSC 5 Pureline selection from a germplasm line Pali
Duration (days) 100 120 100 95-100
Pigmentation Green Purple stem Green Basal pigmentation
Tillering ability Profuse High Moderate High
Panicles Compact Well exposed clusters spikelets Loose & Open Medium
Graikncharacter Dark brown Brown & Bold with hard seed coat DarkBrown Brown
Grain yhield (kg/ha) Rainfed 1800 1500-1800 2400 1683
Special features Shorter than CO 2 Varagu Tolerant to smut, short duration Short duration non-lodging and non-shattering, suitable for early and late sown seasons withstands shortperiods of intermittant drought, tolerant to downy mildew, smut, ergot & stemborer Resistant to sheath blight & smut diseases. Tolerant to shoot fly pest. Rich in starch, amylose protein than CO 3
PARTICULARS Panivaragu K1 Panivaragu K2 Panivaragu CO2 Panivaragu CO3
Parentage Pureline selection from Kovilpatti local Selection from PV 1685 Selection fromManjanaikanur local Selection from Coimbatore local
Duration (days) 65 75 70-75 80
Pigmentation Green Green Green throughout Green throughout
Tillering ability Moderate to high High Moderate to high Moderate to high
Panicles Loose & long with more no. of branches Loose Dense subsequent drooping Loose and spear shaped
Grain character Smoky white Grey Shining yellow bold Shining yellow
Grain yield (kg/ha) Rainfed Irrigated 1380 - 2010 3184 1200-1500 1500
Special features A very short duration type drought Non-lodging drought tolerant Non-shattering and responsive to fertilisers Non-lodging tolerant to drought suitable for late sown conditions Tolerant to head smut
PARTICULARS Panivaragu CO4      
Parentage Pureline selection from local collection of TNAU      
Duration (days) 75      
Pigmentation Green      
Tillering ability High      
Panicles Loose density Subscent      
Grain Character Golden yellow      
Grain Yield (kg/ha) Rainfed 1500      
Special features High tillering wider adaptability stable