Oil Seeds

Groundnut

I. Application and Amplification of General Seed Certification Standards

The General Seed Certification Standards are basic and together with the following specific standards constitute the standards for certification of groundnut.

II. Land requirements

A seed crop of groundnut shall not be eligible for certification if planted on land in which the crops grown within the previous two seasons were of the same kind unless the crops grown within the previous two seasons were of the same variety and of an equivalent or higher class of certified seed and were certified.

III. Field Inspection

A minimum of two inspections shall be made from the time of flowering to harvesting

IV. Field Standards

A. General requirements 1. Isolation
Groundnut seed fields shall be isolated from the contaminants shown in the column 1 of the Table below by the distances specified in columns 2 and 3 of the said Table:

Contaminants Minimum distance (meters)
Foundation Certified
1 2 3
Fields of other varieties 3 3

Fields of the same variety not conforming to the varietal purity requirements for certification

3 3
B.Specific requirements

Factor Maximum permitted(%)*
Foundation Certified
Offtypes 0.10 0.20

V. Seed standards (in shell or pods)

Factor Standards for each class
Foundation Certified
Pure seed (minimum) 96.0% 96.0%
Inert matter (maximum) 4.0% 4.0%
Other crop seeds (maximum) None None
Weed seeds (maximum) None None
Germination (minimum)
(kernels hand shelled)
70% 70%
Moisture (maximum)
(kernels hand shelled)
9.0% 9.0%
For vapour-proof containers (maximum)
(kernels hand shelled)
5.0% 5.0%

Sesame

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants In addtion, the soil of selected fields should be rich in organic matter, free of weeds, well-aerated and well-drained.

Isolation Requirements

Sesame is mainly a self-pollinated crop, but some cross-pollination by insects occurs. Cross-pollination up to five per cent has been recorded. For pure seed production, the seed fields must be isolated from other sesame fields by hundred metres for foundation seed class and fifty metres for Certified seed class. (In Taxas, U.S.A different varieties of sesame are isolated at 180 to 360 metres.)

Time of Sowing

First week of June to first week of July for kharif crops. In southern states it can be sown during rabi from mid-October to mid-November. For good germination the average temperatures should be between 25 to 27C

Preparation of Land

Prepare the field to good tilth. One deep ploughing and 2 to 3 harrowings followed by levelling are sufficient to prepare field to the desired tilth.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

2.5 to 5.5kg per hectare.

Method of Sowing

Seed crop must be sown in rows with the help of drill. The depth of seeding should be 2.5 to 3.5 cm.

Fertilisation

This crop responds well to organic fertilisers. On low fertility lands apply 34 kg nitrogen, 17 kg phosphorus and 34 kg potash, per hectare. On fertile land the crop can be grown even without fertiliser, or apply 30 kg nitrogen and 20 kg phosphorus per hectare. It is desirable to meet these fertiliser needs through application of farm yard manure, or composit.

Spacing

Row to row - 30 to 45 cm
Plant to Plant - 15 to 22 cm.

Irrigation

Irrigate the crop if prolonged periods of drought are experienced. Irrigation few days after sowing, (if soil moisture is less), when plants are 15 to 20 cm high and during flowering and maturation of seed are important for obtaining increased seed yields.

Interculture

Two to three hoeings and weedings are necessary. The first hoeing should be done prior to irrigation, when the plants are 15 to 20 cm high. Subsequent hoeings may be done as perrequirements. For control of broadleaf weeds, spraying of simazin (1.40kg to 2.8 kg per hectare) has been found effective.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Removee offtype plants and diseased plants affected by rosette, phyllody and leaf spot blight from field, from time to time as required.

Harvesting and Threshing

The crop is ready for harvest when the plant turns yellow with capsul3es still green. The crop is hand-cut and stacked in bundles (12 to 14) by hand. These are piled incircular stacks on threshing floors with the root end outwards. For a week or more, the stacks are opened out and the bundles spread each day in the morning and collected and stacked again in the evening. When the plants are completely dried, threshing is done by shaking or beating the plants with sticks.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield is about 2 to 6 qtl per hectare.

Sunflower

1.SEASON AND VARIETIES


SEASON/DISTRICT VARIETIES
Rainfed
Adipattam (June-July) Coimbatore, Erode, Salem, Namakkal, Tirunelveli, Dindigul K1, EC 68415, K2, CO 1
Dharmapuri, Tiruchirapalli,Perambalur, Karur CO2, CO3, CO4
Karthigaipattam (October-November) Cuddalore, Villupuram, Virudhunagar. Sivagangai, Ramanathapuram,Madurai, Dindigul, Theni,Tiruchirapalli,Perambalur, Karur, Tirunelveli K1, K2, Morden, CO1, CO2,CO3, CO4
Irrigated (April-May)
Coimbatore Erode K1, K2, EC.68415, MORDEN, MSFH1. CO 3
Dharmapuri, Salem, Namakkal, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur CO 3 (except Dharmapuri)
(December-January)
Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Erode, Coimbatore K1, K2, EC 68415, Morden, MSFH 1
Dindigul,Madurai, Theni,Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi CO1, BSH1,CO3, CO4, CO3-(except for Dharmapuri and Madurai,Dindigul, Theni
Khariff 1st June is the optimum time of sowing for BSH 1
Rabi 15th December is the optimum time of sowing for BSH 1, MSFH 1

II.DESCRIPTION OF SUNFLOWER VARIETIES

Particulars CO1 MORDEN K2 K1 BSH 1
Parentage Selection from Cemianka 66 Selection from Cemianka 66 Spontaneous mutant from EC 101495 (Cemianka culture) Introduction from EC 68414 234 A x RHA 274
Duration(days) 65 75 70 85 85
Yield kg/ha
Rainfed 800 900 750 1000 1250
Irrigated 900 1000 1000 1250 1500
% age of oil 37 36 38 37 37
Ray floret Light yellow Light yellow Lemon yellow Light yellow Light yellow
Height(cm) 70 90 75 120 120
Seed size Medium Medium Small,shiny Medium Medium
Seed colour dark grey Black With faint grey marking Black with grey edge Black
1000 seed weight(g) 45 44 43 45 45
Spacing (cm) 30x15 30x10 30x 15 30x30 to 60 x 30 30 x 10
Particulars EC 68415 CO 2 MSFH1 CO3 CO4
Parentage Introdn.from Russia Derivative from Intermated progeny of 7 single crosses of exotic origin Now known Mutant from CO 2 Extract from the cross Dwarf x surge
Duration (days) 90 87 90 88 80-85
Yield kg/ha
Rainfed 1000 900 .. 1250 1600
Irrigated 1250 1400 1500 1600 1750
(%) age of oil 37 37.4 39 .. 39.7
Ray floret Light yellow Light yellow Light yellow Light yellow ..
Height (cm) 130 135 170 145-175 145-175
Seed size & colour Medium black Medium dark, grey to black linear Medium black Over linear and dark grey Presence of stripes in the seed coat
1000 seed weight(g) 46 45 45 50 to 60 56
Spacing (cm) 30x30 30x30 60x30 30x30 30x30

III. MANAGEMENT OF FIELD OPERATIONS

1. FIELD PREPARATION

Plough once with tractor or twice with iron-plough or three to four times withcountry-plough till all the clods are broken and a fine tilth is obtained.

2.APPLICATION OFFERTILIZERS
  • Spread 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compost or composted coir pith evenly on the field before the last ploughing and incorporate in the soil byworking a country plough.
  • Apply NPK fertilizers basally as per soil test recommendations. If soil test recommendations are not available,follow the blanket recommendation of 40:20:20 kg NPK/ha for both irrigated and rainfed crops.
  • Azospirillum: Soil application - Mix 10 packets (2000 g)/ha of inoculant with 25 kg FYM and 25 kg soil and apply before sowing.
3. APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENTS
  • Mix 12.5 kg/ha of micronutrient mixture formulated by the Department of Agriculture, Tamilnadu with enough sand to make total quantity of 50kg/ha.
  • Apply the mixture over the furrows and top two thirds of the ridges before sowing.
  • Do not incorporate the mixture in the soil.
  • To overcome manganese deficiency, foliar spray of 0.5% MnSO4 on 30, 40 and 50th day.
  • For zinc deficiency, apply 25 kg/ha ZnSO4 as basal, or 0.5% ZnSO4 spray on 30,40 and 50th day.
4.FORMING RIDGES AND FURROWS
  • Form ridges and furrows 6 m long.
  • Form the ridges 60 cm apart for BSH 1 and MSFH 1 and 30 cm apart for K2 and others.
  • Use bund-former or ridge plough to economise and.
  • Form irrigation channels across and ridges according to the topographyof the field.
5.SEED RATE

Use 15 kg per ha for varieties except CO 1 the seed rate is 30 kg/ha. Select good quality seeds.

6.SEED TREATMENT
  • Soaking seeds in 2% ZnSO4 for 12 hrs and shade drying recommended, for rainfed sowing.
  • Treat the seed with Trichoderma @ 4g/kg. This canbe done just before sowing. It is compatible with biofertilizers. SUCH SEEDS SHOULD NOT BE TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES.
  • Treat the seeds with Psudomonas at 2 g/kg of sed.
  • Treat the seeds 24 hours prior to sowing.
  • Azospirillum: Use 3 packets (600 g)/ha of inoculant for treating seeds using rice kanji as binder. Dry the treated seeds in shade for 15 minutes and sow immediately.
  • Moist hydration for 24 hours in moist gunny bags followed by drying and seed dressing with Thiram @ 2g/kg to enhance field emergence.
  • Seed dried to 8-9% moisture content, treated with Thiram @ 2g/kg and packed in polylined (300 gauge) cloth bag can store upto 9 months with 70% germination.
7.SOWING
  • Place the seeds at a depth of 3 cm along the furrows in which the fertilizer mixture is placed and cover with soil. Put two seeds per hole.
  • Irrigate the crop according to the different growth stages. Regulate irrigation according to the following growth phase.
  • Pre-sowing irrigation; Life irrigation; 20th day after sowing; Early bud development , Flowering-2 irrigations and seed development-2 irrigations; Flowering period is critical.
8.GAP FILLING AND THINNING

Thin out seedlings leaving only one healthy and vigorous seedling in each hole on the 10th day of sowing.

9.WEED MANAGEMENT

Hoe and hand weed on the 15th and 30th day of sowing and remove the weeds. Allow the weeds to dry for 2-3 days in the case of irrigated and then give irrigation.

10.WATER MANAGEMENT

Irrigate immediately after sowing followed by an irrigation on 4-5th day and later at intervals of 7 to 8 days according to soil and climatic conditions, seeding, flowering and seed development stage (ie) two weeks before and after flowering.

11. SPRAYING NAA
  • Spray the hormone Napthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) at 20 ppm concentration (280 g NAA in 625 litres of water per ha) on the 30th and 60th day of sowing.
  • Use a high volume sprayer and give a thorough coverage of the entire plant.
  • Do not use brackish water.
12.PEST MANAGEMENT
  • Spray Neem kernal extract 5% the 30th day to control leaf caterpillars and leaf weevils.
  • Hand pick the Helicoverpa larvae and destroy.
13.DISEASE MANAGEMENT - HEADROT
  • Spray Psudomonas in case of intermittent rainfall at the head stage, directing the spray to cover the capitulum.
  • Repeat bio-fungicidal application after 10 days if humid weather continues.
  • Alternaria leaf spot and wilt: Spraying Psudomonas
  • Charcoal rot: Spot drench Psudomonas
14. IMPROVING SED SET BY MECHANICAL MEANS
  • During the mid flowering phase ,improve pollination by.
  • Mid rubbing of the capitulum with the hand covered with soft cloth or
  • Rubbing two flowers face to face gently.
  • The mid-flowering phase are: 58 to 60 days of planting for long duration varieties.
  • 45 to 48 days of planting for short duration varieties.
  • Do this operation inthe morning hours between 9 and 11 AM when pollen shedding is high.
  • Keeping bee hives at the rate of 5/ha improves seed setting.
15.JUDGE WHENTO HARVEST

Observe the bracts on the backside of the capitula. When they turn yellow, the heads harden andthe crop is ready for harvest.
Bird damage: Use of reflective ribbons scares the birds effectively and thus prevents loss ofgrain.

16.HARVESTING
  • Cut the capitula (flower heads) only.
  • Thresh and clean.
  • Immediately after harvest, dry the heads in the sun for 3 days.
  • Spread the heads in thin layer and give turning once in 3 hours.
  • Do not heap or store the heads before drying properly as mould fungi will develop and spoil the grain quality.
  • Thresh using a mechanical thresher, or beat with a stick and separate the grains.
  • Wionnow and clean the seeds.
  • Dry the seeds again in the sun for another two days.
  • Stoire in gunny bags.

IV. SEED TECHNOLOGY

1. SOWING

April-August. Use seeds retained by 12/64" (4.7 mm) diameter, round perforated sieve or BSS 5 x 5 wire mesh sieve for EC 101495, for other varieties, use 9/64" (3.5mm) diameter, round perforated sieve or BSS 5 x 5 wire mesh sieve and winnow to eliminate chaffy, light and broken seeds.
If the seeds are fresh (1 to 5 month old) germination will be low due to dormancy. Hence, they should besoaked in aqueous solutionof Etherel at 300 ppm for eight hours in air tight plastic container or inaqueous solution of Potassium nitrate at 0.5 per cent concentration for 16 hrs in open plastic container. Wash and air dry the seeds. Slurry treat with Psudomonas 2 g/kg.dissolved in 5 ml of water per kg of seed before sowing.

2.SPACING

Adopt a spacing of 45 x 30 cm.

3.MANURING

Apply N P K 60:45:45 kg/ha. Foliar application with 0.25% micronutrients at 4th melanin growth stage is recommended for increased seed setting.

4.HARVESTING

Harvest when the drooping peduncular receptacle turns lemon or pale yellow in colour and at this stage the seed moisture content will be 25 per cent and the seeds will be black in colour. Cut and dry the heads immediately until the seeds contain 15-16 per cent moisture and the nseparate the seeds with a mechanical thresher or manual labour and pre-clean.

5.GRADING

Use a sieve with 9/64" (3.6 mm) diameter round, perforated or BSS 7 x 7 wire mesh sieve. Remove broken seeds.

6.STORAGE

For short period upto 6 months, dry the seeds to 7-8% moisture content and store ina cloth bag. For long period beyond 10 months, dry the seeds 5-6% molisture content and store in H.D. Polythene, 700 gauge. thick bag.
NOTE: Heat-seal the bag.
Sunflower hybrid seeds dried to 8% moisture content and stored in cloth and 100 gauge polythene bag upto 9 months with germination percentage of more than 72.
Soaking sunflower achenes in very dilute solution of Sodium dihydrogen phosphate (104M) for 2 hours followed byh drying back to original moisture content (8%) effectively controls the deterioration process in all sunflower hybrids particularly in low vigour CMS parental lines.

7. SEED TREATMENTS

Treat the seeds with Psudomonas 2gr/kg before sowing

8. HYBRID SUNFLOWER BSH 1

For the production of Sunflower hybrid Seed (BSH 1), a planting ratio of (4:1) four lines of female parents and one line of male parent is recommended. Hand pollination at flowering to increase the seed set percentage and yield potential is recommended.
The best time for production is Mayto August for perfect synchronisation. Application of 90:90:40 kg NPK/ha is optimum to get higher yield.
Hydration-dehydration treatment of 5 monthsold seeds using Disodium phosphate (10 4M) prolonged the shelf life upto one year.
For KBSH 1 and LMMRSH 3 hybrid the optimum planting ratios are 1:8 and 1:6 respectively.

9.HYBRID SUNFLOWER BSH 3

For seed production of hybrid sunflower BSH 3, a planting ratio of 1:6 is optimum.
For KBSH 1 the optimum planting ratio is 1:4. In this variety, the male parent lags behind the female parent by 7 days under Coimbatore conditions and hence themale parent can be sown seven days ahead of female parentfor synchrony of flowering.

Castor

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants. In addtion the field should be well-drained and soil well-aerated.

Isolation Requirements

Castor is an often corss-pollinated crop. Cross-pollination by wind varies from 5 to 36 per cent according to the prevailing climatic conditions. For pure seed production, the seed field must be isolated from other vareity fields and of same vareity not conforming to varietal purity requirements of certification at least by three hundred metres for foundation seed class, and one huncred and fifty metres for certified seed class.

Time of Sowing

The sowing time in most of the States is June to July. In Bihar (Rabi crop) castor is sown in September to October. In Gujarat, plating is done in August to September and in Karnataka it is sown in April.

Preparation of Land

Castor is a deep-rooted crop. Therefore, deep ploughing has been found very useful. One deep ploughing followed by two to three harrowings is sufficient to bring the field to the desired tilth.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

11 to 18 kg per hectare, varies upon spacing, seed size andmethod of sowing. For rainfed crops a seed rate upto 33 to 44 kg is also practised.

Method of Sowing

The crop is planted in rows either by drill, or behind the plough in furrows. the depth of seeding is 7.5 to 10 cm.

Fertilisation

The crop responds well to organic manures. the rate of fertiliser application varies considerably in different States and ranges from 20 kg to 80-100 kg per hectare for nitrogen, 10 to 40 kg phosphorus and 10 to 40 kg potash.

Spacing

Row to row - 90cm(annual varieties) Plant to plant - 45 to 90 cm

Irrigation

The number of irrigations required vareis with the rain. Usually two tothree irrigations during the entire crop season may be required. Adequate moisture in soil at the time of flowering is necessary.

Interculture

The castor field must be kept weed-free for the first sixty days after planting. Two to three weedings/hoeings are sufficient to keep the field clean. Application of 2-4D, or triflurelin (3 to 4kg per hectare) is also recommended forcontrolling annual dicot weeds.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Remove all offtypes before flowering. The diseased plants affected by Phytophthora blight and Cercospora leaf spot should be rogued out as soon they are noticed, and preventive plant protection measures adapted immediately to check further spread.

Harvesting and Threshing

The fruits are ready for picking in November. The picking continues until April, because thecapsules mature unevenly due to sequential development of racemes. The fruits should be gathered when they start turning light yellow and placed in piles to dry in the sun unitl they blacken. Later the seeds are beaten out with sticks, winnowed and screened to remove husks, dry skins and soil pebbles. Before storage, the seed must be dried to eight per cent moisture content.

Seed Yield

Eight to ten qtl per hectare. High yielding varieties if managed well may give 15 to 20 qtl per hectare seed yield under irrigated conditions.

Rape & Mustard

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production of rape seed and mustard shall be free of volunteer plants. the selected field should be well-levelled and the soil suitable for cultivation of the crop.

Isolation Requirements

Indian minimum seed certification standards prescribe a ;minimum isolation distance of 100 metres and 50 metres for foundation seed class and 50 metres and 25 metres for certified seed class, for self incompatible and self compatible types respectively, from fields of other varieties of the sampe species, and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements of certification

Time of Sowing

Sowing at the following times are recommended for best results.

Regions Toria Sarson Rai
Hissar 4th week of Sept. 1st fortnight of Oct. End of Sept.
Punjab 2nd week of Sept. Sept. end to 1st
week of Oct.
-
U.P. 2nd week of Sept Mid Oct.to
mid Nov.
1st week of Oct.

Preparation of Land

Usually one ploughing three to four harrowings, followed by levelling, are sufficient to prepare land tosedired tilth. toria in particular requires a fairly moist seed bed for good germination.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

5 to 8 kg per hectare.

Method of Sowing

Seed crop should be sown in rows. the depth of seeding should not be more than 3 cm.

Spacing

Row to row - 30 cm
Plant to Plant - 7.5 - 10cm

Irrigation

One presowing irrigation and one at flowering and pod formation is recommended forobtaining higher seed yields.

Interculture

One hand weeding when the plants are 15 to 20cm high is required.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

All the off-type plants, easily distinguishable on the basis of plant characteristics, and other species plants must be removed before flowering to ensure pure seed production. Remaining off-types, if any, distinguishable on the basis of siliqua characteristics should be removed beforfe maturity. Satyanashi (Argemone mexicana) is the most objectionable weed in rape and mustard seed production. This weed must be removed altogether as often as required.

Harvesting and Threshing

It is important to harvest seed crop soon after plants start turning a light yellow. At this stage most of the siliqua are light yellow and the seed inside the siliqua light brown. After harvesting, the crop should be left in the field in small bundles for two to three days to dry in the field, or the bundles may be brought to threshing floor and completely dried there. After plants have been well dried, threshing can be done by bullocks, tractor or flailed with sticks. Before storage, dry seeds to reduce moisture content to eight per cent.

Seed Yield

With good management crop yields upto 15 to 20 qtl per hectare.