Pulses

Pulses - Redgram (Cajanus Cajan)

1.Season and Varieties

District/Season Varieties
Adipattam (June-August)
Kancheepuram,Tiruvallur,Dharmapuri, Erode,Coimbatore, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai SA 1, CO 4, CO 5
Cuddalore,Villupuram, Salem,Namakkal
*For all districts
CO 6*, COH 1, COH 2
Pudukottai, Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Pudukottai,Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli Vamban 1
Theni, Ramanathapuram, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli,Thoothukudi, Sivagangai CO 4, CO 5
Purattasipattam (September-November)
Kancheepuram, Tiruvallur, Vellore,TiruvannamalaiDharmapuri, Salem,Namakkal,Erode,Coimbatore,Madurai,Dindigul, Theni CO5, COH 1, COH2
Summer (February-March)
All districts except the The Nilgiris and Kanyakumari CO 5, COH 1, COH2
Pudukottai Vamban 1
Wetlands bunds SA1, CO3, CO4, BSR 1
Note: CO 4 redgram can be sown in late August

II. Seed Rate

Quantity of seed required kg/ha

Strains SA1 CO 3 CO 4 CO 5 CO 6 Vamban1 COH 1 COH 2
Pure crop 10 25 25 25 10 20 10 25
Mixed crop 5.0 12.5 12.5 12.5 5 10 5 ..
SA1, CO 3, CO 4 and BSR 1 (Bund planting) 50 g/100 metre

III. Description of Redgram varieties

Particulars SA1 CO3 CO4
Parentage Pureline selection from Thirupathur Mutant CO1 Pureline selectionfrom gene pool
50% flowering(days) 120-130 90-95 90-95
Duration(days) 180 130 130
Green Yield (kg/ha)
Rainfed 1250 1180 980
Irrigated .. 1400 1750
Hedight(cm) 120-150 105-110 120
Branches 12-16 11-12 10-12
Plant spread Semi spreading Erect Semi spreading
Colour of standard petals Yellow with faint red veins Yellow Yellow withpurple veins
Colour of pod Green withpurple streaks Green with purple streaks Green with purple straks
Colour of grain Pale reddish brown Reddish brown Light brown
100 seed weight(g) 8.5 7.2 8.5
Pattern of growth NDT DT NDT
CO5 BSR 1 CO 6
Parentage Mutant CO1 Pureline selection from Mayiladumparai,Madurai Mutant of SA1(25 Kr gramma rays)
50% flowering(days) 70-75 100-110 120-130
Duration(days) 110 180 170-180
Grain Yield (kg/ha)
Rainfed 760 0.75-1.0 kg of green pods/plant 893
Irrigated 1440 .. ..
Hedight(cm) 90 150-200 166
Branches 7-78 7-10 8-12
Plant spread Semi spreading Semi spreading Semi spreading
Colour of standard petals Yellow with purple veins Red at dorsal side Yellow with light purple
Colour of pod Green with purple streaks Red with diagnal constriction Green with purple streaks
Colour of grain Red brown Reddish brown Reddish brown
100 seed weight(g) 8 12 8.8
Pattern of growth NDT NDT NDT
NDT: Non-Determinate DT: Determinate
Vamban 1 COH COH 2
Parentage (Prabath x NY3C)(T21xICP 102) 1MS T21xICPL 87109 MS Co5 xICPL 83027
50% flowering(days) 70 65-70 60-75
Duration(days) 95-100 115-120 120-130
Grain Yield (kg/ha)
Rainfed 840 936 ..
Irrigated 1200 1500 1050
Hedight(cm) 80-90 100-150 70-90
Branches 4-5 9-12 4-6
Plant spread Erect .. ..
Colour of standard petals Yellow Yellow with red to dark red veins throughout Yellow with faint red veins
Colour of pod Greenand purple Green with purple streaks when young and brown at maturity Green with purple
Colour of grain Medium,square & brown coloured Light brown Tan brown
100 seed weight(g) 6.7 10.3 9.0 -9.4
Pattern of growth DT NDT NDT

IV.Management of field Operation

1.Preration of land

Prepare the land to fine tilth

2.Seed Treatment

Treat the seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Bio control agents are compatible with biofertilizers. First treat the seeds with Biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium.

3.Treatment Of The Seeds With Bacterial Culture

a. Biocontrol agent treated seeds should be again treated with a bacterial culture. Treat with Rhizobial culture CC1. For red lateritic soil Rhizobial culture VPR 1 is effective.
b. Three packets of Rhizobial culture are sufficient for treating seeds required for one ha. The bacterial culture slurry maybe prepared with rice kanji. Dry the bacterial culture treated seeds in shade for 15 minutes before sowing.

4. Application Of Fertilizers
  • Apply fertilizers basally before sowing Rainfed: 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P2O5/ha
    Irrigated: 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5/ha.
  • Soil application of 25 kg DAP/ha and foliar application of 25 kg DAP/ha with 25 kg of sulphur as gypsum (110 kg/ha) or 2% urea in two sprays at flower commencement and 15 days after maybe given.
  • Treat the seeds at 8-9% moisture with halogen mixture (containing pure CaOC1, CaCO3 and arappuleaf powder as 5:5:1 ratio @ 3g/kg and store in 700 gauge polybags to maintain high germination for more than 10 months.
5.Application Of Naa

Apply 40 ppm of NAA (40 mg/litre). This maybe advantageously mixed with urea and sprayed.

6.Sowing The Seeds

Dibble the seeds adopting the following spacing.

Strain Pure crop Mixed crop
SA1 90 cm x 30 cm 240 cm x 30 cm
CO2 45 cm x 30 cm ..
CO 3 45 cm x 30 cm ..
CO 4 45 cm x 30 cm ..
CO 5, Vamban 1 45 cm x 20 cm ..
COH 1 45 cm x 20 cm ..
COH 2 45 cm x 15cm ..
CO 6 90cm x 30 cm 240 cm x 30 cm
Bund crop 60 cm for SA1, BSR1 and 30 cm for others ..
Optimum populations-1,60,000/plants/ha
7.Weed Management

Give two hand weedings on 15 and 35 days after sowing.

8.Protection of the seelings against insect pests

If sucking pests are noted, spray 5% Neem Kernal Extract.

9.Water Management

Irrigate immediately after sowing, 3rd day after sowing, bud initiation, 50% flowering and pod development stages. Water stagnation should be avoided.

10.Protecting Inflorescence and pods from pod borders

The economic threshold levels for the following insects are:

  • Maruca testulalis spotted borer-3/plant
  • Exelastes atomosa pod borer-5/plant Whenever Helicoverpa is predominant, apply NPV at 500 LE/ha in 0.1% Teepol. Spraying NSKE5% twice, NSKE 5%, Neem oil 2% is effective in the management of pest complex and for higher yield.
11.DISEASE Management
  • Sterility mosaic: Rogue out the infected plants in the early stages of growth. Spray NSKE 5% Pseudomonas fluorescens on noticing the initial symptoms and repeat after a fortnight.
  • Wilt and root rot:
    a. Spot drench around the base of the affected plants as well as healthy plants surrounding them with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2g/litre for wilt and root rot.
    b. Soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of well decomposed FYM/sand at 30 days after sowing.
  • Varieties VRI 1 and TMV 3 are moderately resistant to cyst nematodes.
12.HARVESTING THE CROP

Harves the plants when 80% of the pods are mature. Stack the plants for a few days.

13.INTER-CROPPING

Raising one rwo of redgram as inter crop for every six rows of groundnut (6:1) is recommended for Aliyarnagar regionduring Khariff season.
a. Multistoreyed cropping: For rainfed Vertisols of Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi districts recording more than 300 mm of rainfall during the crop growth period, multistoreyed cropping system Agathi + Redgram (CO 5) + Cotton (MCU 10) + Blackgram (CO 5) is highly profitable. (Agathi in 1 tier with 1 x 1 m spacing - Redgram in IItier with a spacing of 45 x 20 cm - Cotton in the III tier with a spacing of 45 x 15 cm - Blackgram inthe IV tier with the spacing of 30 x 10 cm.).
For rainfed Vertisols receiving less than300 mm of rainfall, Agathi + Sorghum (CO 26) + Cotton (MCU 10) + Blackgram (CO 5) system is ideal. For both systems, apply 40 kg N and 20 kg P2O5/ha. (Agathi in I tier with a spacing of 1 x 1 m - Sorghum in II tier with a spacing of 45 x 15 cm - Cotton in III tier with the spacing of 45 x 15 cm and Blackgram in IV tier with 30 x 10 cm).

14.PROTECTING THE SEEDS FROM STORAGE PESTS
  • Dry the seeds adequately to reduce moisture levelto 10%.
  • SEED: Admix onekgof activated clay r every 100 kg of seed. Pack in polythene lined gunny bags for storage.
15.NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS

Greengram/Blackgram/Cowpea/Redgram Zinc: Symptom appears within a month of sowing. The plants are stripped with yellow or pale green foliage. Veins and mix ribs of the leaves are green although tissue around them bacomes yellow and bronzed.
Iron: Reduced concentration of Chlorophyll in leaves - pale leaf colour maybe indistinguishable from deficiency of nitrogen or other elements.

V. SEED TECHNOLOGY

1. SELECTION OF SEED FOR SOWING

Remove all discoloured seeds. Use onlyhighly germinable (90% and above)and normal coloured seeds retained by the wiremesh sieve, B.S.S. 5 x 5 (aperture width 3.35 mm) for large seeded varieties and B.S.S. 6 x 6 (2.8 mm) for small seeded varieties.

2.PRE-SOWING TREATMENT

Soak the seeds before sowing for 3 hrs inaqueous solution of SnSO4 100 ppm (10 g/100 lit of water) at 1/3 volume of seeds and quickly air dry in shade to their original weight.

3.SEED TREATMENT

Treat the seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g?kg of seeds After air-drying, treat the seeds with the Rhizobial culture before sowing, following the recommended procedures.

4.APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS

Basal 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5/ha

5.SUPPLEMENTARY FOLIAR APPLICATION

Spray 250 litres of aqueous solution containing urea, DAP, muriate of potash and potassium sulphate at 10.0, 2.6, 1.75 and 1.4 kg respectively with the addition of succinic acid at 40 gm and teepol at 120 ml per hectare onthe 55th and 70th day after sowing. The spray application should be made only in the afternoon.

6.SOWING

Dibble the seeds at about 4 to 5 cm depth at the side of the ridges.

7.SPACING

A spacing of 40 x 30 cm may be adopted.

8.HARVESTING

Pods shouldbe harvested 40 days after the 50% flowering stage in order to obtain seeds possessing high germination vigrour and storability.

9. PRE-HARVEST SANITATION SPRAY

3-5 days before harvesting, application of pre-harvest sanitation sprays with NSKE 5% will minimise bruchid infestation

10.POST HARVEST PROCESSING FOR STORING SEEDS

Dry the pods immediately to about 12 to 13 per cent moisture content and thresh to separate the seeds in a pre-cleaner. Dry the seeds to 10 per cent moisture content. Size grade using wire mesh sieve B.S.S. 5 x 5 (width of square aperture 3.35 mm) for large seeded varieties and 6 x 6 (2.8 mm) for small seeded varieties and reject those that pass through these sieve as well as the discoloured and broken seeds.

11.SOTRAGE

The graded seeds should befurther dried to 7 to 8 per cent moisture content and treated with

  • For grain cum seed storatge, activated clay, need oil, groundnut oil, leaf powder of tobacco, nochi, neem, Albizzia amara (arappu) and fruit rind powder of Sepindus laurifolius (Poochi kottai) and Acacia concinna (Soapnut powder) also can be used for storage of seeds.
  • For storing seeds in dry places like Coimbatore upto six months, they should be packed in fresh gada cloth or gunny bags. For storing in humid areas and for long term (1 - 2 years) storage they should be packed in moisture-vapour-proof container like polythene bags of 700 gauge thickness. These bags should be filled with seeds leaving only sifficient space to close their opening by perfectly heat-sealing to make it air tight. They should be stitched and closed. These bags may in turn be covered by gunnybags and closed before stocking to prevent slipping. Store the bags on racks or wooden pallets ina dry storage room. Pigeon pea hybrid ICPH 8 produced during khariff had better seed quality than summer. A planting ratio of 1:6 (Male:Female) and application of 30:60:20 kg NPK ha is to be adopted. Two foliar sprays of DAP 2% one at 50% flowering and the second at 10 days after augumented the seed yield and seed quality. The seeds attain physiological maturity 35 days after 50% flowering accompanied by change of pod colour from green to brown. The hybrid seeds can be processed using 11/64" sieve. The seeds dried to 6% moisture content and treater either with activated clay (10 g Kg ha) and packed in 600 gauge polythene bag prevented bruchid and maintained 80% germination upto 8 months under ambient condition. Seed parent (MS Prabhat DT) has better storage potential than the pollinator (ICPL 161) or the hybrid (ICPH 8)
BSR 1 - PERENNIAL REDGRAM

BSR 1 Redgram a long duration variety having a duration of 180 days and canbe kept in fields for more than two years after ratooning. The plants are semi spreading with non determinate growth. It has become very popular not only in Tamilnadu but also in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. The seeds are bold, just like peas and when they are tender the beans are pinkish green in colour and can be cooked as curry or added to Kurma or Sabji. When the beans mature they canbe used as Dhall.

BSR 1 variety is recommended for growing in kitchen gardens, backyards, farm road sides, as border crop insugarcane, banana and betelvine and as a shade crop in turmeric and as a bund crop in paddy double cropped wetlands.

The best season for sowing this crop is June-July. Small pits are dug 90 cm apart and the pits are filled with a mixture of well decomposed manure or compostand soil. Fifteen grams of urea and 30 grams of superphosphate need to be applied in each pit. Two to three seeds are dibbled per pit and watered. When they grow six inches height one plant may be retained in each pit.

Watering is to be done as and when needed. The plant grows 150-200 cm in height with 7 - 10 branches. It comes to flowering in about five months. If harvested when the pods are tender the beans will be fit for making curry. Each plant will yield two to three kg of green pods at an average seed yield of 750 g to one kg per plant. After the first harvest, the branches are pruned and allowed to grow further.

In another 45-60 days the plants produce the second flush. For pure crop, about 3kg of seeds maybe required.

Bengalgram

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants. In addition the land should be light and well drained.

Isolation Requirements

Gram flowers are normally self-pollinated berfore they open. An isolation distance of 10 metres for foundation seed and 5 metres of certified seed class from fields of other varieties and of same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements of certification is sufficient.

Time of Sowing

The best time for sowing is the third and fourth week of October. Delayed sowings should be avoided for seed crops.

Preparation of Land

Generally the land should not be ploughed to fine tilth. the soil should be opened and be allowed sometime for aeration.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency. Seed must be treated.

Seed Rate

55 to 100 kg seed per hectare is required depending upon the seed size.

Method of Sowing

The seed crop should be sown in rows by drilling. Depth of seeding should be 7 to 10 cm.

Fertilisation

Application of about ten cart loads offarm yeard manure is the bhest practice. Further, treating the seed with rhizobium culture isrecommended. General recommendation is to apply 15-20 kg nitrogen and 50 kg phosphorus per hectare as basal dressing.
Foliar application of 0.2 to 0.3 per cent diammonium phosphage once after thirty days of sowing, and again at the flowering stage, has been found very useful.

Spacing

Row to row 45 to 60 cm (Kabuli varieties), 30 to 40 cm (Desi varieties).

Irrigation

One presowing irrigation (if moisture is not enough in soil) and subsequent one to two light irrigation at 45 to 75 days of crop growth should be given.

Black gram

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Since the pollen shedding takes place long before the petals open, self-pollination is the rule. therefore,an isolation of ten metres for foundation seed, and five metres for certified seed class from fields of other varieties and same vareity not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification is necessary.

Time of Sowing

The crop comes up well in the Kharif season. However, it can be sown either in the second week of February, soon after the wheat harvest in April or in the Kharif season. In the South it also comes up well in the Rabi season in light soils with moisture retentive capacity. It can also be grown in rice fallow after paddy.

Preparation of Land

Theland should be prepared well by one to two harrowings, followed by levelling. If the crop is being taken after wheat or paddy (in the South), no preparation is necessary and seeding can be done after giving one presowing irrigation.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

Kharif and Rabi season crop - 15 to 20 kg per ha

Spring and Summer crop - 25 to 30 kg per ha

Method of Sowing

The seed should be planted in rows.

Fertilisation

A basal application of twenty five carts of farm yard manure in addition to 20 kg nitrogen and 35 to 40 kg phosphorus per hectare is recommended for kharif season crop.

Spacing

  • Kharif and - Row to row 30 to 45 cm
  • Rabi crop - Plant to plant 7 to 10 cm
  • Spring and -Row to row 20 to 25 cm
  • Summer crop Plant to plant 7 to 10 cm

Irrigation

Frequent irrigation for the spring and summer ceop is expecially necessary. the kharif crop normally does not require any irrigation. One to two irrigation may be required if there is prolonged dry period.

Interculture

It is essential to keep theweeds under suppression. Hence, one or two weedings and hoeings may be done. Apraying of one kg treflan (active compound) in 1000 litres ofwater per hectare on the soil, at the time of the final preparation, has also been found quite effective for controlling weeds..

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

The offtype plants, and severely diseased plants, should be rogued out from time to time as required.

Harvesting and Threshing

Forsummer and spring crop, start picking when pods turn black. In kharif crop start harvesting when most of the pods have turned black. The threshing can be done by hand to avoid injury to seeds. After threshing and cleaning, the seeds should be dried to nine per cent moisture before storage.

Seed Yield

10 to 15 qtl per hectare (Black gram)

Green gram

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants.

Isolation Requirements

Since the pollen shedding takes place long before the petals open, self-pollination is the rule. therefore,an isolation of ten metres for foundation seed, and five metres for certified seed class from fields of other varieties and same vareity not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification is necessary.

Time of Sowing

The crop comes up well in the Kharif season. However, it can be sown either in the second week of February, soon after the wheat harvest in April or in the Kharif season. In the South it also comes up well in the Rabi season in light soils with moisture retentive capacity. It can also be grown in rice fallow after paddy.

Preparation of Land

Theland should be prepared well by one to two harrowings, followed by levelling. If the crop is being taken after wheat or paddy (in the South), no preparation is necessary and seeding can be done after giving one presowing irrigation.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

Kharif and Rabi season crop - 15 to 20 kg per ha
Spring and Summer crop - 25 to 30 kg per ha

Method of Sowing

The seed should be planted in rows.

Fertilisation

A basal application of twenty five carts of farm yard manure in addition to 20 kg nitrogen and 35 to 40 kg phosphorus per hectare is recommended for kharif season crop.

Spacing

  • Kharif and - Row to row 30 to 45 cm
  • Rabi crop - Plant to plant 7 to 10 cm
  • Spring and -Row to row 20 to 25 cm
  • Summer crop Plant to plant 7 to 10 cm

Irrigation

Frequent irrigation for the spring and summer ceop is expecially necessary. the kharif crop normally does not require any irrigation. One to two irrigation may be required if there is prolonged dry period.

Interculture

It is essential to keep theweeds under suppression. Hence, one or two weedings and hoeings may be done. Apraying of one kg treflan (active compound) in 1000 litres ofwater per hectare on the soil, at the time of the final preparation, has also been found quite effective for controlling weeds..

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

The offtype plants, and severely diseased plants, should be rogued out from time to time as required.

Harvesting and Threshing

Forsummer and spring crop, start picking when pods turn black. In kharif crop start harvesting when most of the pods have turned black. The threshing can be done by hand to avoid injury to seeds. After threshing and cleaning, the seeds should be dried to nine per cent moisture before storage.

Seed Yield

8to 10 qtl per hectare (Green gram)

Cowpea

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants. In addtion, the soil of the field selected for seed production should be light and welldrained.

Isolation Requirements

Cowpea is largely a self-pollinated crop but some cross-pollination by insects has been recorded. In areas of abundant insect activity, varieties should be isolated at least 130 metres apart Indian minimum seed certification standards require that a seed crop be isolated at least ten metres for foundation seed class, and five metres for certified class, from fields of other varieties or of same variety not conforming to0 varietal purity requirements of certification.

Time of Sowing

June to July

Preparation of Land

The land should be ploughed and harrowed two to three times, and levelled after removing stubbles and weeds.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

20 to 25 kg per hectare.

Method of Sowing

Seed can be sown on flat, or raised beds, with a drill, or dibbled in rows. the depth of seeding should be 2.5cm to 3 cm.

Fertilisation

Apply 20 to25 cart loads of farmyard manure at the time of land preparation; Apply 35 to 40 kg phosphorus and 20 to 25 kg potash at the time of final preparation of land for sowing. Top-dress 20 to 25 kg nitrogen in two doses during early growth period and flowering.

Spacing

Row to row - 45 to 60 cm
Plant to plant - 10 to 15 cm

Irrigation

Normally no irrigation is required in kharif season crop, unless there is prolonged drought due to absence ofrains.

Interculture

Keep theseed field free of weeds. One to two weedings/hoeings in early stages of crop growth may be required.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

The offtype plants and diseased plants affected by blight, cowpea mosaic and Anthracnose should be removed from the field from time to time as required.

Harvesting and Threshing

the seed crop may be harvestd, or the pods may be picked, when they are fully dried. The threshing can be done either by flailing plants with sticks when pods are dry, or by threshers with drum speed reduced to 400 to 500 rpm and the use of suitable screens. Uniform feeding of thresher is important for minimising mechanical damage to the seeds. After threshing, the seed should be dried to nine per cent moisture content before storage.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield varies from 15 to 20 qtl per hectare.

Soyabean

Land Requirements

Land tobe used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants. In addtion, the field should be well-drained.

Isolation Requirements

The dehiscence of anthers takes place in the bud itself before the opening of the flower and hence, normally self-pollination takes place. Cross-pollination by insects is usually less than one per cent. An isolation of three metres from other fields of soybean is sufficient to maintain genetic purity.

Time of Sowing

First fortnight of July is the most appropriate ;time for sowing soybean seeds.

Preparation of Land

Prepare the seed field to fine tilth by deep ploughing and two to three harrowings followed by levelling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

65 to 70 kg per hectare.

Method of Sowing

The seed crop must be planted in rows with a drill. the depth of seeding should be 2 to 3 cm in fields where soil moisture conditions are optimum. Seeding upto 4 cm depth can be done on light soils.

Fertilisation

Apply 20 to 25 kg nitrogen, 80 to 100 kg phosphorus and 30 to 40 kg potash per hectare, at the time of sowing. If zinc deficiency is noticed, spray zinc sulphage and lime mixture on the crop.

Spacing

Row to row - 45 to 60 cm Plant to plant - 4 to 5cm

Irrigation

Irrigate the crop as and when required. there should be adequate moisture in the soil, particularly during flowering, seed development and the maturation stage to obtain high seed yields. Therefore, one totwo irrigation in September may be necessary.

Interculture

To obtain good seed yield, effective weed control from the beginning is absolutely necessary. Weed control by two or three hand weedings, orwith seedicides such as lasso (4 kg per hectare) should be adopted, if required.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

Start roguing plants affected by yellow mosaic virus and soybean mosaic virus as soon as they appear, so as to check further spread up to first two to three weeks. Continue removal of plants affected by soybean mosaic upto last. At flowering stage remove off-type plants on the basis of plant characteristics and flower colour. Do final roguing at maturity stage, to rogue out off-type plants on the basis of pod characters.

Harvesting and Threshing

The time of harvest and method of threshing is most important for maintaining seed quality. Experiments conducted as Mississippi State University. U.S.A. indicate that crop harvested in the second week of October retained higher germination than crop harvested in the second week of December. Therefore, to retain higher seed germination harvest the crop as soon as it isready for harvest. Moisture content ofsoybean at thisstage is around 13 to 14 per cent. Harvesting may be done by hand, or the crop can be directly combined.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield from good crop of soybean varies between 20 to25 qtl per hectare.

Pea

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants. In addtion, the land should be welldrained and with a neutral pH.

Isolation Requirements

Pea is largely a self-pollinated crop with a little natural corssing. An isolation distance of ten metres for foundation seed class and five metres for certified seed class from other pea fields and fields ofthe same vareity not conforming to varietal purity requirements of certification is necessary.

Time of Sowing

Middle October to November in the plains, October to November, Fegruary to March in the hills.

Preparation of Land

The land should be well prepared. One deep loughing and three to four harrowings, followed by levelling are sufficient to prepare the land to desired tilth.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

60 to 75 kg per hectare.

Method of Sowing

Sowing should be done in rows with seed drill or behind the plough at 3-4 cm depth.

Fertilisation

Apply 20 to 25 cart loads offarm yard manure per hectare at the time of preparation of land. Apply 50 to 70 kg phosphorus and 50 kg of potash per hectare at the time of sowing. Top dress 25 kg nitrogen per hectare in two doses during early gorwth period and flowering time.

Spacing

Row to row 45 to 60 cm, plant to plant 5 cm.

Irrigation

Give two to three irrigations at an interval of15 to 20 days, according toweather and soil conditions, before the flowering and fruiting period.

Interculture

One hand weeding after three to four weeks of sowing to keep the seed field clean ofweeds in necessary.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

The off-type plants and diseased plants affected by pea mosaic, foot rot and blight should be rogued out from the seed field from time to time as required.

Harvesting and Threshing

The harvesting may be started when ninety per cent of the pods turn brown. the plants may be uprooted, stacked in small heaps and allowed to dry in the field for a week or so. The threshing may be done by stationery threshers, or by beating the pods with sticks. If a stationery thresher is used, its cylinder speed should be reduced to minimise the mechanical damage.
After threshing, the seeds should be dried to nine per cent moisture before storage. During harvesting and threshing operations, care should be taken to avoid mechanical admixtures and contact oftheseed with moist soil.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield varies from 20 to 25 qtl per hectare.

French bean

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants. In addtion, the land of the selected field should be well drained.

Isolation Requirements

Bean flowers are principally self-pollinated. Natural corssing however, is more common than peas, and the extend of cross pollination may vary from two to eight per cent. The seed field must be isolated from fields of other varieties, and the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements by at least ten metres for foundation seed production and five metres for certified seed production.

Time of Sowing

Plains - January to February, August to September,
Hills - March to May

Preparation of Land

Prepare the field well by ploughing and one to two harrowings, follwed by levelling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

25-30 kg per hectare (Pole varieties), 85-90 kg per hectare (bush varieties)

Method of Sowing

Seeds are sown with a dirll, or dibbled in rows 60 to 75cm apart at 10 to 15 cm distance and 2 to2.5 cm deep. Sufficient moisture in the soil is essential for optimum germination. Ridge sowing is also adopted.
If the beans are being sown in a field for the first time, it is advisable to inoculate the seed with nitrogen-fixing bacteria before sowing. This helps in quick nodulation.

Fertilisation

Apply 25 to 50tonnes farmyard manure per hectare at the time of land preparation; add 500 kg of Superphosphate, 125 kg amonium sulphate and 125 kg potassium sulphate at the time of sowing.. Use 125kg ammonium sulphate as top-dressing twenty five days after germination.

Irrigation

Irrigate thecrop as required. It is essential to maintain available soil moisture above fifty per cent during flowering and pod development.

Interculture

Keep the fields free of weeds. Tow or three hoeings may be required during the growing period.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

It is important to rogue seed crop carefully to maintain genetic purity. characters such as, foliage colour, plant type, flower and pod characteristics etc. should be carefully checked and off-types removed from the field at preflowering, flowering and maturity stage. In addition to off-types the plants affected by diseases namely bacterial blight, Anthracnose, Ascocyta blight and bean mosaic should also be invariably removed from time to time as required.

Harvesting and Threshing

Harvesting is done when a large percentage of pods are fully ripe and most of the remaining have turned yellow. Harvesting should be started before the lower pods become dry enough to shatter. Harvesting is done usually by hand. The crop after harvesting, is left in the field to dry for about seven to ten days. Later, it is threshed by bullocks or by threshers. While harvesting, care should be taken to keep the mechanical injury to a minimum. After threshing and cleaning the seed should be dried to moisture content below nine per cent before storage.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield varies from 12 to 18 qtl per hectare.

Dolichos bean

Land Requirements and Requirements

Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants. In addtion, the land of the selected field should be well drained.

Time of Sowing

(a) Dolichos lab lab July to August
(b)Dolichos biflorus September to October

Preparation of Land

Prepare the field well by ploughing and one to two harrowings, follwed by levelling.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

12 to 15 kgper hectare.

Method of Sowing

Seeds are sown by dibbling at a distance of 1 metre x 30 cm..

Fertilisation

Apply fertilisers on the basis of soil tests. Normally 90kg ammonium sulphage and 40kg superphosphate is given to Dolichos lab lab. the other species do not normally require any fertilisation.

Irrigation

Irrigate thecrop as required. It is essential to maintain available soil moisture above fifty per cent during flowering and pod development.

Interculture

Keep the fields free of weeds. Tow or three hoeings may be required during the growing period.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

It is important to rogue seed crop carefully to maintain genetic purity. characters such as, foliage colour, plant type, flower and pod characteristics etc. should be carefully checked and off-types removed from the field at preflowering, flowering and maturity stage. In addition to off-types the plants affected by diseases namely bacterial blight, Anthracnose, Ascocyta blight and bean mosaic should also be invariably removed from time to time as required.

Harvesting and Threshing

Both the species are cut when pods dry and are yellow. Plants are pulled by hand, or cut, and stacked to dry in sun. ripe pods can also be picked from the standing crop. threshing is done after drying the pods/plants in the sun for a few days and then flailing with sticks or bullocks. After threshing , the seed is thoroughly cleaned and dried to moisture content below nine per cent before storage.

Seed Yield

The average seed yield variesfrom 300 to 600 kg per hectare.